के सभी प्रकाशन Sanchayita Chakraborty . गुवाहाटी , भारत
HIGHER EDUCATION AND ITS NECESSITY FOR WOMEN
Sanchayita Chakraborty, Assam, India
Education is birth right of every individual irrespective of gender. Women education has been one of the major issues since primitive times. In India many political thinkers, social reformers, philosophers and theorists were supporters of women education. Dr. S Radhakrishnan, the great Philosopher and President of India, said that there cannot be educated people without educated women. According to M.K Gandhi, education enables women to uphold their natural right. Swami Dayananda Swaraswati, a Hindu religious leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, considered that it is duty of the state and society to make education compulsory for all girls. According to Swami Vivekananda, daughters should be given as much education as sons so that they can be free from all fetters as self respecting person and can tackle all the problems that face them. Dr. Annie Besant, the founder of the All India Women’s Conference, was an ardent promoter of women’s education in India. She worked to raise the status of girls and women through education. She organized many groups to strive for the furtherance of girl’s school and colleges in many parts of India where girls and women were neglected. The famous reformers like Iswara Chandra Vidyasagar and Raja Ram Mohan Ray also gave emphasis on the education of women.
Women education, In India, is not a result of modern civilization. Even in the early Vedic era, education was open for women. Women had the right to learn fine arts and Veda. They had the right to participate in religious ceremonies along with her husband. Again, if we look towards Epic age, it is found that there is no discrimination of sex in the field of study. In Brihadaranyak Upanishad, a particular mantra was advised to generate a learned daughter. There we notice that the names of Gargi and maitreyi are treated as distinguishing figures in Brahmmavidya – the highest knowledge. In Ramayan and Mahabharta, most of the female characters are found educated. The examples of educated and brilliant women in ancient India is Savitri, Damayanti, Lilawati, Meera etc. But we notice that the position of women has gone through various changes during different ages. At times they had been deteriorated. Although in the Manu Smriti, it was mentioned that women should be highly honoured, we find number of provisions there which actually go against women’s interest. There women are deprived of Upanayana ceremony and thereby of education. From the eleventh century when Mohammad Ghazni conquered India till middle of the eighteenth century when the British rule was established in the country, the ‘Purdah’ system was followed and education of women was stopped. In 1854 women’s education and employment were acknowledged by the East India Company. Then the education was limited only to primary school level and this facility was enjoyed by only richer section of the society. In post independence period the female literacy rate in India was only 8.9%. In 1958, government of India formed a national committee for the education of women and in favor of women education the most of the recommendations of the committee were accepted by the government. As a result, an improvement in the number of female students’ enrolment in higher education is visible since independence. This paper will make a discussion on higher education and its function. How enhancement of female educational level improves not only the standard of living for their children but also improves the prospect of their entire community will also be discussed here. The method of the present work is analytical in nature. The work is theory oriented. An attempt is taken to reach at conclusive point through books, journals and articles available in different libraries in India.
Higher Education and its background in India
Education attained after the completion of secondary level is known as higher education in India. Etymologically, the term ‘Higher Education’ implies the education at degree level and above. In fact, higher educational institutions include not only colleges and universities. All other institutions which allow only post- secondary candidates in their campus are also treated as higher educational institutions. Such as Technological Institutions, Schools of Medicine, Schools in the field of Business, Teacher’s Training School etc. We find higher education had its roots in ancient India. Being influenced by Vedic learning, large teaching institutions like Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramshila were established in ancient India which is often characterized as India’s early universities. During the time of British Raj in India, there were about eighteen universities in the country. At the end of British rule, in 1947, the number of students receiving university education were 1, 80,000 only. By 1957, the number of students in the universities increased up to 6, 00,000. In the various Five Year Plans, education development schemes were adopted and scholarship/stipends were launched for students. As a result, public was attracted towards university education. Now a day, with the growth of population, higher education in India is being complex and challenging. India has large higher educational institutions. It has 777 universities (as per website of UGC as on 02.12.2016) and many degree colleges under the affiliation of nearby universities.
Role of Higher Education
Higher Education can widen our vision and can develop our power of generalization and abstract thought. It does not directly prepare us for any particular profession. Rather, it may indirectly make us better fitted to deal with any situation in which we may find ourselves placed. Throughout history, human progress was possible due to devotion of men and women to the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. Today, a university is the best place to acquire knowledge and develop the power of judgment. It can make persons leaders and pioneers in their respective field of thought. If we wish to serve our own nation and the entire world as well, we must exercise leadership intelligently and wisely. This is possible only by developing qualities of clear thinking, hard work and disciplined application. A university is the place where we come into contact with the highest ideas and values evolved by men and try to make them an essential element of our own personality.
Need of Higher Education for Women
Higher education is not restricted to male only. It is very important for female also. It enables women to improve quality of life at home and outside. No doubt higher educated women can provide better guidance to their children which are very necessary in the development process. It is found that sons and daughters of employed mothers are free from traditional gender-role attitude. Moreover, it is found that daughters of employed mother have good academic achievement and higher career success. Higher education is the most important means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence so that they can fix themselves up with position in the society. Higher educated women enjoy better job position. Higher education plays a key role in promotion of women in their working life. Again, higher education increases a woman’s abilities to deal with problems not only of her life and family, but also of society and nation. Women’s higher education leads to social benefit as most of them are likely to engage in civic participation. As higher education of women increases the income of women, it leads to growth in gross domestic product.
From social point of view, it may be said that it is a good sign if status of women in technological, scientific and other spheres are considered as efficient. So, women should be awakened enough so that they cannot be subdued. They should be prepared for participation in social, political and financial aspect of life.
1 Bhatia,K and Bhatia, B.D . (1945) THEORY AND PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION, Delhi, Nai Sarak , Doaba House.
2. Kabir, Humayun. (1961) INDIAN PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION, Asia publishing house.
3. Khan, Mohammad Abbas. (2004), MODERN CONPERATIVE EDUCATION, India, New Delhi, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.
Housemaids financials situation during lockdown --According to report The Hindu, 17-May-2021 — It is getting from bad to worse for women workers During the pandemic, women have borne a disproportionate burden of the severe disruptions to life and the economy. Here I want to share my own experience . Every house in my neighborhood has a housemaid, but during the lockdown, everyone had to give up their job. There are some of them who have no choice but to take responsibility for their own families , because some of them are abandoned by their husbands and some are widowed, There are some whose husbands are intoxicated and do not pay any money at home so they have to take care of their children and elderly parents. Some of them who have sent their son to Bangalore , Delhi to earn money and help them but due to lockdown, their children lost their jobs and moved home. Now their situation is so bad that it cannot be described in language .It seems to me that, the people who have suffered in this lockdown most of them are the housemaids. .
Country is going to implement citizenship Amendment law. 30 May, Sunday in Kamalpur, Speaking in the midst of a function , BJP all-India general secretary DilipShaikia said, "The country is going to implement the amended citizenship law." The law has been passedi in both houses of parliament. The atmosphere that was created before protesting against the amendedcitizenship law will not happen again. Because, the people of Assam have already realized everything”.
The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 that will be introduced in Parliament on December 9 is also
likely to benefit the non-Muslims who were declared illegal migrants by various Foreigners Tribunals in
As per government data, as many as 63,959 persons were declared foreigners through ex parte (one sided) proceedings by FTs in Assam. The FTs, quasi-judicial bodies unique to Assam, came up in 1985.
The citizenship amendment Act provides lndian citizenship to six minorities Hindu,Shik, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi, and Christian belong to three Islamic countries Bangladesh,
Pakistan and Afghanistan. The people of these six minority communities now can get citizenship in lndia within six years without showing any documents. The reason is that
people are facing difficulty in respective countries due to their religion .The amended bill
applies to people who were forced or compelled to seek shelter in India due to persecution on the ground of religion . The constitution of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh provide for a specific Islamic state religion. As a result, many persons belonging to Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi,
and Christian have faced persecution on the ground of religion.
There has been a recent spurt of attack on Hindu and Sikh in Afghanistan and this attack have been done by terrorists at the behest of their “external supporters” and India has been providing necessary visas to
members of these communities who want to come .
New delhi November 03 ,2020. Rajat Sharma
According to report A huge mob of Muslim bigotse attacked the Sheetal temple in Bhimpura area of Karachi on Sunday night, vandalized the premises,
broke idols of Hindu gods Lord Shiva and Ganesh, and within minutes turned the place of worship into a
wreck. The immediate provocation: there was a rumour that a Hindu boy had committed blasphemy. An
anti-France protest by Muslims was going on in the locality when this rumour spread, soon the crowd
turned its attention towards the Hindus, attacked the ancient temple, broke the idols and threw them
outside. It was later found that the rumour was baseless.
When local Hindus in Karachi lodged protests and gave statements to the police, some of the vandals
roughed them up in the presence of police and threatened them with dire of consequences.
This was the third act of desecration of Hindu temples in Pakistan in the last 20 days. Both the earlier
attacks on Hindu temples took place in Sindh province. The pattern was the same. First, some local
Muslims alleged Hindus of committing blasphemy and then vandalized the temples. Though local police
registered FIR, no action was taken against the vandals.
Pakistan government has terribly failed in protecting its minorities. It does not even have a minority
member in its National Minority Commission. Hindu, Sikh, Shia, Ahmediya and Christian minorities in
Pakistan are living in a state of fear with no protection being provided by police. In the last one year,
there have been several cases of forcible conversion of Sikhs, Hindus and Christians, forcible abduction
and marriage of Hindu girls, and attacks on places of worship. During Partition, there were 428 Hindu temples in Sindh province. This number has now dwindled to only 20, say Pakistani human rights
In August 2020 , a Pakistani builder openly demolished a pre-1947 era Hanuman temple in Lyari
locality of Karachi at a construction site. The builder took advantage of the nationwide lockdown due to
Covid, and claimed that since no one was visiting the temple, he decided to demolish it. In Islamabad, in
July, religious bigots razed the boundary wall of a Sri Krishna temple under construction. They were
objecting to the construction of a temple in the capital of the Islamic state.
Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan, who has been shouting hoarse about treatment of Indian Muslims,
had been claiming that minorities in his country are being given protection. His claim is a white lie.
Recently, houses of Bheel and Meghwal communities in Sindh were set on fire by Muslim mobs. In
September, 171 Hindus from Bheel community were forcibly converted into Islam in Sindh province.
One clear case of religious persecution. A 13-year-old Christian girl was abducted by some Muslims. Her
parents approached the police which turned a deaf ear. They approached the court. The defendants
produced a video in court to “prove” that the girl converted to Islam of her own free will, and she has
married a 44-year-old Muslim. The court, instead of handing over the girl to her parents, directed that
the girl be allowed to stay with her husband who was more than thrice her age.
This is nothing but a travesty of justice. Imran Khan will never speak about such atrocities in his country,
but he would surely raise his voice against what he calls “Islamophobia” in France and other European
countries. The question is: why are Hindus, Sikhs and Christians in Pakistan targeted to exact revenge
against whatever his happening in faraway France?
In neighbouring Bangladesh, in a shocking case of bigotry, a Muslim mob attacked the homes of 10
Hindu families in Kurbanpur village near Muradnagar in Comilla district . The reason: a Bangladeshi man,
living in France, had praised President Emmanuel Macron’s action against jihadis in his country after the
brutal beheadings of two persons. Bangladesh police arrested two Hindus, including a school
headmaster, on charge of liking the Facebook post of the man. They were charged of “hurting religious
sentiments”. The houses of both the Hindus arrested by police were also set on fire.
After there was outrage over this incident, Bangladesh Home Minister claimed that five persons have
been detained on charge of arson and rioting. Police have been deployed in Kurbanpur and Andikot villages to prevent the situation going out of control.
In recent years, Bangladesh has been witnessing spread of Islamic fundamentalism. Law enforcing
agencies in the country must deal sternly with mobs that indulge in arson in the name of religion. The
denigration of Prophet Mohammed by displaying his cartoon is condemnable, but this does not mean
that wanton acts of beheadings and stabbings by Islamic jehadists must be supported. These are attacks
on humanity which must not be condoned. All of us should be concerned over how Islamic jihadists are trying to take advantage of the issue to settle scores with minorities in Pakistan and Bangladesh. Such
moves must be nipped in the bud. The world must speak out against bigots attacking minorities in Pakistan and Bangladesh
Dhaka March 20, 2021 UPDATED: March 20, 2021 00:48 IST
Supporters of an extremist Islamist group in Bangladesh attacked and vandalized 70-80 Hindu houses in the
country’s northeastern Sylhet division The attack on a Hindu village many local Hindus fled their homes
to save themselves, the report said, adding that the mob entered the village, ransacked and looted
The above scenario reflects on the importance of the CAA for non-muslim illegal migrant who had been
victims of inhumanity for a long time. Now the thousands of Bengali Hindu migrants who were not included in the NRC can still get citizenship
to stay on in Assam state.
Anthony Bilken's confession: "I will not forget India's help in fighting Covid". Washington. On May 29 -India-US relations are getting stronger. Foreign Minister S Jayashankar is on a one-week visit to the United States for the first time, after the White House reshuffle . He is here to discuss the issues of Coronavirus situation , including the situation of other issues . On Friday, he met with U.S. Secretary of State Anthony Blinken. The two leaders discussed several issues during the meeting. After this meeting, it has been directed to export raw material for making vaccine to India. As a result, AstraZeneca will be able to make an additional 20 million vaccine doses. At the end of the meeting Anthony Rinken informed that India and the United States are working together in the Covid situation. As a result, good relations will be maintained between the two countries. He added that the relationship between the United States and India is very important. He thinks that this relationship will be even stronger. The US Secretary of State added that the way India helped the United States in the first wave of Covid-19 should never be forgotten. So we will do our best to help India in its difficult situation. Besides, Indian External Affairs Minister S Jayashankar told reporters, "We have discussed many issues. In the last few years between the relationship between the two communtries has improved, in the coming days this process will continue. I would like to thank the Biden administration for standing by us in our bad times. After meeting with the UN Secretary-General on Tuesday, he had a separate meeting on Wednesday with US Security Adviser Jake Sullivan, Director of National Intelligence Avril Haynes, and House Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman Gregory Mix. Vaccine components, bilateral trade, quads, peace keeping in the Indo-Pacific region, and the withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan have all been discussed. Later in the meeting, External Affairs Minister S Jayashankar tweeted the issues discussed.
It's time to bring the women as the Chief Justice of the country.
New Delhi. April 16. From now on, women will get more prominence in the Indian justice system, women can sit at the top of the Supreme Court, can be the Chief Justice. There is no gender inequality, but in the justice system. The country's top court has decided to appoint more women. It is known that only 11.04 percent women judges are in the country. Even since1950s, there has not been a single chief justice among the 48 Chief justices of the Supreme Court. After independence, out of 247judges only 8 female judges in the country's top court, no change in that number yet. As a result, a three-judge bench of the Supreme Court has asked for more women in the Indian judiciary. There is no inequality but more women are employed in the legal system . It is learned that based on the allegations made by women judges "Shaiva Gupta" and Sneha Kalita", the outgoing Chief Justice of the Supreme Court SA Baebde said that in the Supreme Court from now on, women judges will also be appointed . However, a bench of judges of the Supreme Court complained that most of the women are busy with household chores and children's education, do not show too much interest in this profession. However, the women lawyers said in a chart that only one of the 25 High Courts in the country has a female Chief Justice (Hima Kohli, the Chief Justice of the Telangana High Court), also, out of the other 661 judges of the High Court, only 71 are women. As a result percentage which stands at 11.04 percent.
The vaccine has arrived, but the coronavirus cannot be eradicated. New York, April 13: The vaccine has been discovered, that's right, but the coronavirus will never be completely eradicated from society, its existence can not be erased and its infection will continue to occur. This fear was there a long time ago, this time the U.S. researchers said that fear. That means it will never go away completely, we have to move on with it. Speaking of Coronavirus disease , in this context the researchers mentioned other viral infarctions such as,
measles, HIV, chickenpox. So, researchers say, people have to fight and survive with coronavirus disease because it's now a part of our lives. There are currently four corona viruses and the common cold is caused by infection. And most experts believe that Covid 19 will be the fifth virus on this list forever. But with community transmission (simultaneously spreading to a large number of populations) hard immunity will also be created, then the virus will gradually weaken, but it will not end. After being inactive for some time, it may become active again at some point. "The virus isn't going away right now, but it's important how we deal with it," said Sarah Kobei, an epidemiologist at the University of Chicago. The key point is to maintain social distance. However, it has been observed lately that even a distance of six feet is not enough to control the coronavirus it can also cause Covid infection, so a distance of eight to ten feet must be ensured. A few days ago Some scientists have expressed concern about the distance in the popular journal of science. Natalie Dean, a professor at the University of Florida, said people repeatedly talking about going back to normal life but it is not possible in the Covid situation. Though vaccine has come out, but the disease is not going to be eradicated.
Exciting information from the AIIMS chief the young generation is responsible for coronavirus
New Delhi, April 1: The growing corona virus is raising concerns in the country. According to experts, the Covid Second Wave has begun. Meanwhile, AIIMS Dr Randeep Guleria said that young generation was responsible for Covid-19 in the country. Randeep was speaking to an all-India media on Thursday. Guleria said that young boys and girls are going out and Covid-19 is mixing with them to increase the infections. He also said that young people think that if they are infected with the corona virus, it will be a very mild infection and in the situation of Covid they are not following the proper rules. Randeep also said that young people are more likely to be infected with the adults. Although adults are being given priority in vaccination. On Wednesday in Panjab at Chandigarh a high level meeting was organised regarding Covid infarction ,under the leadership of V.K Pal, member of Niti Aayog and central health secretary Rejesh Bhushan . The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the coronavirus situation. The
meeting also discussed the public health system adopted by the Punjab Government and the Chandigarh administration. Dr. VK Pal, Chairman of the Immunization Committee, at the meeting stressed the need to break the infection and He emphasized caution.