All publications of Anubhav Chawla . दिल्ली , भारत
Child labour; the effect on child, causes and remedies
Table of Contents
1 Introduction................................................................................................................................................ 6
1.2 Research purpose and questions ......................................................................................................... 7
1.3 Methodology ....................................................................................................................................... 7 1.4 Delimitation ........................................................................................................................................ 7 1.5 Outline................................................................................................................................................. 8
2 Background ................................................................................................................................................ 9
2.1 Child labour in India ........................................................................................................................... 9
2.2 The legal framework and policies to control child labour in India ................................................... 10
2.3 Child labor in Nigeria ....................................................................................................................... 11 2.4 The legal framework and policies to control child labour in Nigeria ............................................... 11
3 Defining and contextualising child labour ............................................................................................... 12 3.1 Definition of child labour.................................................................................................................. 12 3.2 Overview of Child labour ................................................................................................................. 13 3.3 Rural and urban child labour............................................................................................................. 14 3.4 Gender differentials in child labour .................................................................................................. 15 3.5 Child labour and poverty .................................................................................................................. 15 3.6 Types of child labour ........................................................................................................................ 16 3.7The International Organizations......................................................................................................... 17 3.7.1 ILO Convention No. 138 on the minimum age for admission to employment and work (1973) .. 17 3.7.2 ILO Convention No. 182 on the worst forms of child labour (1999) ............................................ 17 3.8 The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989).................................................. 18 3. 9Tackling child labour on International instruments .......................................................................... 19
4 Socio-economic factors related to child labour........................................................................................ 20 4.1 Poverty as root cause..................................................................................................................... 20 4.2 Family size .................................................................................................................................... 20
4.3 Family condition ........................................................................................................................... 20 4.4 Traditional or cultural factor ......................................................................................................... 20 4.5 Corruption ..................................................................................................................................... 21 4.6 Civil war........................................................................................................................................ 21
4.7 Urban migration ................................................................................................................................ 21 4.8 Globalization.....................................................................................................................................22 4.9 Relationship between Child Labour, Family income and Education................................................22 4.9.1 Child labour and schooling ............................................................................................................ 23 4.9.2 The opportunity costs of education ................................................................................................ 23 4.9.3Combining school and work ........................................................................................................... 24 4.9.4 The impact of child labour on educational achievement ............................................................... 24
5 Comparing child labour in India and Nigeria .......................................................................................... 25 5.1 India .................................................................................................................................................. 25 5.1.2Nigeria............................................................................................................................................. 25 5.1.3 The legal framework in India and Nigeria ..................................................................................... 26 5.1.4 Determinants of child labour and school attendance in India and Nigeria .................................... 28 5.1.5 Correlates of child labour............................................................................................................... 29
6 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 30 6 Reference ................................................................................................................................................. 32
List of Abbreviations:
CRC CSR C138 ILO
ILO IPEC NGO UNICEF
Convention on the Rights of the Child Committee on the Rights of the Children
Convention No. 138 on the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment and work
Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour No. 182
International Labour Organization
International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Non-Governmental Organization
United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
United Nations Development Programme
It has been observed over decades that, poverty forces poor families to send their children to work, which results in a serious problem the world is facing nowadays. Child labour can leave many severe consequences on children and their families. When children work, it does not mean as a standard, they support their families economically, neither all of them get paid for their work since many of them work as bonded labour or as slaves. In addition to that, they face many problems which may cause permanent damage to their childhood.
Children usually work to contribute and provide financial support to their families. Their health is often ignored by their parents or they may not be aware about their children’s health. This paper illustrates how both India and Nigeria have adopted laws and regulations to eliminate child labour. However despite all the efforts, child labour and the factors that influence the incidence of child labour continues to be prevalent.
The results from this study explain the reasons which forces children to work, poverty. This paper also draws conclusion that governments, societies, and communities should cooperate in a better way with each other to decrease child labour. Possible and innovate solutions and suggestions are arose at the end of this paper.
Keywords: child labour, poverty, education, India, Nigeria, governments, International labour organizations
Child labour; the effect on child, causes and remedies to the revolving menace
For many years, child labour has been one of the biggest obstacles to social development. It is a challenge and long-term goal in many countries to abolish all forms of child labour. Especially in developing countries, it is considered as a serious issue these days. Child labour refers to children who miss their childhood and are not able to have the basic amenities which a child should have. Recently the International Labour Organization (ILO,2013) estimated there are around 215 million children between the ages five to fourteen who works worldwide. They are often mistreated and work for prolonged hours, in very bad conditions. This can affect their health physically, mentally and emotionally. These children do not have the basic rights like access to school or health care.
According to ILO (2013) the largest numbers of child labourers are working in hazardous work and the total number of child workers is increasing, even though it is forbidden by law. These children are vulnerable to diseases and they struggle with long-term physical and psychological pain. The main cause that induces children to work is poverty. These children work for their survival and their families. (Mapaure, 2009).Some studies like Dessy and Pallage (2003) argue not all the work that children do is harmful or brutal. Some work may provide successful learning opportunities, such as babysitting or newspaper delivery jobs, but not if the work exposes them to psychological stress, like human trafficking, prostitution and pornographic activities.
The international organizations have made great efforts to eliminate child labour across the world. Many countries have adopted legislation to prohibit child labour; nonetheless child labour is widespread throughout the world. It is not easy task for low income countries to achieve banning child labour. Several studies and international organizations considered that education is the key strategy in addressing child labour, and it can help children to stay away from work. However not every family can afford to send their children to school or, even if they enrolled, afford to keep them attending the school.
1.2 Research purpose and questions
Child labour is a serious problem and a challenge for many developing countries. Many countries have enacted various laws and have taken serious initiatives to eradicate child labour, but still the problem is very widespread throughout the world. This paper critically examined child labour in India and Nigeria and how both governments undertake various programs to eradicate child labour through different organizations and agencies. In addition to understanding and investigating different reasons behind the plague of child labour that has engulfed throughout the world and a brief review on how child labour has so far been studied .Further, this paper states how to contribute to in raising the government’s awareness about the importance of issues related to child labour, education and their living condition.
This research work addresses a question:
What are the current patterns in child labour in India and Nigeria now?
India and Nigeria?
What kind of policies are adopted to address child labour in
How does policies adopted relate to previously identified causes?
This study it has been based on a comparative case study between two countries. The comparative method is going to give the researchers practical tools for analysis and research. This approach allows the researcher to understand when two or more cases are set against one another(Bryman 2008, p.58). In order to answer research question secondary data is collected through literature material researched from academic books, articles, and news and research reports on child labour, poverty education and public health of child labour. The literature review is mostly based on research papers of different scholars and reports provided by UNICEF, ILO and World Bank in terms of international labour standards and human rights conventions. Secondary data were also extracted from international organisations like the ILO, the UN and the World Bank. This paper attempts to provide with realistic overview of the child labour situation. Peer reviewed online resources and academic articles written by different scholars, were used in this paper to determine the existing child labour policies.
Since child labour is an extremely complex phenomenon, this study is limited to examining the nature and extent of child labour aged between five and fourteen years old. The largest number of working children between the ages of five and fourteen involved in economic activities worldwide. The study focuses on the fight against child labour, and the importance of legislation for working children. This study looks at the two countries India and Nigeria and to describe
what policies have already been implemented to tackle child labour. India and Nigeria have been chosen for the study because today, Asia has more child labour in the world, for example India has the largest number of world’s working children with almost every third child being a child labour and every fourth child between the age group of five to fifteen is engaged in some economic activities. While, Nigeria has the highest the incidence of child labourers in Africa. Both countries have been experiencing the burden of the phenomenon and difficulties to eradicate it(Bhat& Rather, 2009; Owolabi, 2012).
This study is divided into four chapters. Chapter One provides the background of the problem, the purpose of the research question, methodology, delimitations and outline. Chapter Two explores the situation of child labour in India and Nigeria and then explains the problems of enforcing child labour regulations. Chapter Three gives an overview and definition of child labour- , rural and urban, the differences between boys and girls engaged in economic activity, the link between child labour and poverty, various factors involved in child labour. After a description of the International Legal frameworks of ILO and UNICEF and also describes some of the major international and regional organizations, governments and the work they have done to fight against child labour. Chapter Four presents the theoretical framework which gives outline of the causes behind child labour,the child labour problems in relation to primary schooling and the reasons which makes children drop out of school or not go to school. Chapter Five, the results of the study is reported. In Chapter six presents the conclusion.
The incidence of child labour is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa followed by Asia and the Pacific. The prevalence of child labour is very high in sub-Saharan Africa especially in Nigeria. About 48 million child laborers across sub-Saharan Africa, including 15 million in Nigeria engaged in child labour (Ajakaye,2013) In Asia and the Pacific is the region with the largest number of child labour, India has the largest number of children in the world (ILO,2012)Child labour is an old phenomenon in both India and Nigeria According to Vaknin(2009), it is traditional in both countries to send a child to work children participated in agricultural and household work. Parents consider that the work help children learn new skills, however these children are exposed to hazards and to physical factors.
Both countries were colonized by British. Nigeria became a British colony in 1800 but acquired its independence in 1960. Since independence the country experienced a very violent history. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with more than 170 million people. The country has the largest oil and gas reserves in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its oil wealth, however, Nigeria remains highly underdeveloped. Poor governance and corruption have limited infrastructure development and social service delivery and slowing economic growth keeping much of the population suffers from extreme poverty (Ploch,2013)
In 1612 India became British colony and independent in 1947. India is world's second most populous country with 1.2 billion people. Indian economy is among the fastest in the world, however the level of poverty in India is still high with high rate illiteracy rates, disease, and malnutrition and largest awareness of poor people in the world(Krishna , 2012)
In this chapter I look into the child labour situation in India and Nigeria and how government supporting to eliminate child labour.
2.1 Child labour in India
The use of child labour is very prevalence in India and the cause is deep rooted with poverty. UNICEF India has estimated 28 million children aged five to fourteen involved in work (UNICEF,2011) Child labour is not a new phenomenon in India where children has always worked. During the industrial revolution child labour increased, due to the shift of labour movements to colonial countries. Children can be found in every sector of the informal economy (Molanka,2008).The incidence of working children in India are engaged in hazardous occupations such as factories manufacturing diamonds, fireworks, silk and carpets, glass and bricks(Waghamode& Kalyan,2013). There are several factors that force children to work such as inadequate economic growth, poverty, unemployment over population and lack of education and health care (Ahmad,2012).
On school attendance in India a large number of children between ten to fourteen years of age are not enrolled in school because of household economic condition. Attendance in school or dropout differs for male and female while boys are more likely to provide financial income for the family, girls are more involved in household chores (Kakoli & Sayeed ,2013).High illiteracy and dropout rates are high in India due to inadequacy of the educational system. Even through many poor families don’t see education as a benefit to society, they consider that work develops skills that can be used to earn income (Ahmed, 2012)
2.2 The legal framework and policies to control child labour in India
The India government has established various proactive policies towards elimination of child labour. India has not yet ratified ILO Conventions 138 and 182 on banning child labour and eliminating the worst forms of exploitation. However the government of India implemented a child labour law in 1986(The Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act) the legislation sets a minimum age for employment of children at fourteen years and forbid child labour in dangerous sectors. The Government prohibits forced and bonded child labour but is not able to enforce this prohibition. The Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation Act does not forbid child labour but consider about regulating it.But indeed the law does not eliminate all forms of child labour specially when the vast majority of children under the age of fourteen are working in family farms or doing households (Venkatarangaiya Foundation;2005).
India has a number of child labour projects which have been implemented to help children from hazardous occupations and provide them an education. Including the National Child Labour Policy (NCLP) started in 1987. The aim of NCLP is to help children in hazardous activities and provide non-formal education, vocational training, supplementary nutrition etc. The ILO IPEC (International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour) is also another progarmme which eliminate child labour, the programme sponsors 175 projects in India(Padmanabhan,2010 )
Furthermore, several NGOs like Care India, Child Rights and You, Global March against Child Labour, etc. have taken up the task to get the children back to school and also volunteers along with villagers. The MV Foundation is non-governmental organisation (NGO) whose mission is to tackle child labour through promoting elementary education, even approaching parents to send their children to school. In spite of various laws regarding child labour and much efforts done by the non-governmental organizations, nonetheless children continue to work on a massive scale in most parts of the country. This is a problem because most child labour laws in India do not cover all types of work such as agriculture, wholesale trade, restaurants and domestic works. Usually these children are the most vulnerable child labourers (Venkatarangaiya Foundation;2005).
Despite these efforts, child labour legislation to protect children has been unsuccessful, this is because of the majority of Indian population lives in rural areas with lack of infrastructure and is difficult to enforcement of laws and policies in rural areas. Many of the policies and legislative tools in India are rooted deeply in defection, allowing for illegal behaviours to take advantage of flaws. Many people believe that the cause of these behaviours is something technical, it will be shown that there is a relative heavy percentage of human omitting factor involved, often arising from the mentioned attitudes towards children’s work(Murphy, 2005).
2.3 Child labor in Nigeria
Child labour is prevalent in urban centers in Nigeria. This is because a large number of people move from the rural areas to urban area. Over the years there has been a rapid growth in Nigeria’s population because of massive rural-urban migration. For instance Uyo is the capital of Akwa Ibom State, the city has experienced rapid urbanization and many poor rural families struggle for a better life in urban areas. This pushes families to force their children to work in order to supplement family incomes (Okafor,2010; Nseabasi & Abiodun 2010).
The number of child labour is increasing in Nigeria, in 1995, the number of child labour was twelve million while by 2006 the number of child labour under the age fourteen has risen to fifteen million (Adegun,2013). The International Labor Organization estimates that about 25 percent of Nigeria’s 80 million children under the age of fourteen are involved in child labour. Children works in different sectors such as farms, domestic help, in fishing, mining, armed conflict, street hawking, and child trafficking. The number of child labour involved in street hawking is a very common form of child labour in Nigerian cities, these children working from morning to evening and as a result of this, they do not have the time to enroll in schools or most of them drop out of school. Awosusi& Adebo (2012) assumes that many child labourers in Nigeria are abused physically, mentally, sexually and psychologically. They work long hours under dangerous and hazardous conditions with little or no pay benefits.
Education in Nigeria is compulsory for a child that till nine years old. Nigerian government makes primary education free and compulsory for all children However, many children do not attend school, about six million children in Nigeria, both boys and girl, are estimated to be working .The dropout rates for primary school are high for both boys and girls because of several factors such as poverty and early marriage teenage pregnancy poor school, or cultural and religious issues (Awosusi& Adebo,2012; Elijah & Okoruwa,2006)
2.4 The legal framework and policies to control child labour in Nigeria
Several policies and legislations have been adopted by the Federal Government of Nigeria for improving the welfare of children by eradicating child labour. However, ILO (2000) states some of the legislation and policies have deteriorated, and are not being imposed. Although, there is no direct labour policy in the country, there are several policies and social programmes which aims at improving education, health, population, social development, and child welfare if enforced would help to reduce child labour (ILO,2000)
The Federal Labor Act Government have set the minimum age for the employment of children at twelve years and is in force in all the 36 states of Nigeria. The Nigeria’s Labor Act permits children at any age to perform light work in domestic service or work with family member in agriculture. However, the Child Rights Act prohibits the worst forms of child labour, including the forced labour of children and use of children in prostitution or in armed conflict. The Labor Act sets different ages for various hazardous occupations. For instance, a child aged fifteen or older can work in industries. The law forbids children under age of sixteen to work underground or to work with machines but clearly allow children aged between sixteen to eighteen to do these hazardous occupations. However, the same law prohibits employment of child under the age of
eighteen to work in harmful environment. The law does not remove children from domestic service, this can increased incentives for parents to send their children to work (United States Department of Labor, 2011).
In 2002 Nigeria ratified Convention No. 138, the Minimum Age Convention and Convention No. 182, the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Nigeria also adopted the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, which appeared to have laid rest to the argument that children have no clearly definable rights in Nigeria. Both the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) were adopted in 1991 and 1985 respectively. However both the CRC and CEDAW have now been “domesticated” in Nigeria. The African Charter has also been domesticated by Nigeria. However, the National Assembly should seriously look into these and other international laws, especially human rights issues that adversely affect the rights and fundamental freedoms of the citizenry. Thus, the problem now is how effectively to enforce and monitor the implementation of these provisions as they affect children’s and women’s rights in Nigeria. This also presupposes that all social rights should be made justifiable in Nigeria so as to empower the less privileged in the society (Onyemachi, 2010).
The Nigerian government has provided an enabling environment and support for these civil society organizations (CSOs) to thrive and has drawn from their work formulate policies, programmes and interventions for child victims of abuse and violence (Ekpenyong& Sibirii, 2011). On 2000, the Nigerian Government established a national program to eliminate the worst forms of child labour in Nigeria (Elijah& Okoruwa, 2006). Despite all these children are still abused. Ekpenyong and Sibirii (2011) states the reason child labour is prevalent is due to the economic situation where many families live below poverty and can barely earn enough to feed themselves and their children. Furthermore mainly child laborers are engaged at the household level or street hawking Togunde and Arielle (2008) argues that regulations regarding street hawking have been difficult to control by the government.
3 Defining and contextualising child labour
3.1 Definition of child labour
The term child labour has many definitions by different scholars. According to Suda(2011) the term child labour refers to when children is working in any type of work that is dangerous and harmful to children’s health or the work hinders their education. For Moyi (2011) child labour refers to low wages, long hours, physical and sexual abuse. According to Edmonds and Pavcnik (2005) child labour is viewed as a form of child labour abuse, when children work in bad conditions and hazardous occupations.
The meaning of the term of child labour also varies among organizations, ILO argues that child labour is difficult to define. It depends on the type of the job and, if the age is under eighteen and if the job intervenes the children’s education and development (ILO: 2004). A child, according to
the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 1989 refers to a person under the age of eighteen. The World Bank assumes that child labour can do serious threat to long-term national investment. Furthermore, according to UNICEF the problem of child labour can have more bad consequences besides all the concerns of investment or its relation to economic activity (ILO, 2013; Weston, 2005).
Bhat (2010) asserts that the definition of child labour is not simple because it includes three difficult concepts to define, which are “child”, “work” and “labour”. He claims that the term of childhood can be defined by age but in some societies, people cease to be a child at different ages. The onset of puberty occurs at different ages for different people. Therefore in the Article 1 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and the ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182) defines a child who is under the age of eighteen years (Bhat, 2011). The definition of child labour differs among societies, for example in Africa and Asia they do not consider the work of fifteen years old person as a child labour, they view child labour as a good task that children learn skills from work. They distinguish between child labour and child work, where child work is considered to be a part of the children’s training to be responsible adults while child labour is thought to be exploitative (Omokhodion & Odusote ,2006).
Not all work that children does is severe, according to ILO reports (2002) if a work does not hinder children’s schooling or do not affect their health physically and mentally, then it is generally not categorized as child labour. For instance helping parents at home, looking after siblings or working for pocket money after school hours and during holidays. Also Aqil (2012) assumes that not all work that children do can harm their health or considered as exploitative but it depends on what kind of work they are involved in and how many hours they work. It also depends on work conditions, or environment. However Weston (2005) argues that any work children do, can be damaging to their health because the work can be abusive, exploitative or hazardous and it can influence their health. Omokhodion and Odusote (2006) argued that any work that children does outside home is classified as child labour. According to them working outside home is usually exposed to environmental hazards which may affect their health and safety.
3.2 Overview of Child labour
During the beginning of the industrial revolution children were forced to work around family farms, in factories, tending crops or preparing food. They work in industries and their conditions of work were very dangerous and often deadly. At that time, the industry preferred children to work because children provided cheap labour and more malleable workers (Basu et al. 1999). In 1833 and 1844 the first legislation came to ban child labour. It implied that children should not work, and the idea was to remove all children from labour which interfered with school. However many children continued to be involved as child labour which was prohibited by law (Bhat 2011).
Indeed child labour was almost completely reduced from the developed world, however currently, child labour still continues to rise in developing countries because of rapid population growth, high rates of unemployment, inflation, poverty, malnutrition, bad leadership,
corruption and low wages (Bass, 2004). Child labour is taking place everywhere in the world particularly in low income countries and these children are working in all sectors of the economy, such as agriculture, manufacturing, fishing, construction, domestic service street vending etc. In addition to that children are normally unregistered as employers and working in very poor and dangerous conditions without social protection. (Serwadda-Luwaga ,2005)
The incidence of child labourers throughout the world is difficult to verify because of the lack of reliable statistics of child labour. The reason is that the governments usually do not collect current data regarding child labour, and many child labourers are invisible (Das, 2012). Although reliable data is not available, ILO has estimated the number of child labourers in 2008 were 215 million boys and girls aged between five to seventeen years worldwide, with 115 million of them working in hazardous jobs (Aqil, 2012). The table 1.1 below shows that Asia-Pacific region has the highest number of child labourers with (113.6 million), after that sub-Saharan Africa (65.1
million) and Latin America and the Caribbean (14.1 million) (Muhumuza, 2012).
Asia-Pacific sub-Saharan Africa Latin America and the Caribbean 113.6 million 65.1 million 14.1 million
Source: Accelerating action against child labour: 2010
3.3 Rural and urban child labour
Child labour has been a complex rural problem, as well with children helping out in the farm with their families. The vast majority of child labour is involved in agriculture. On the other hand agricultural sector is the mainstay of developing countries economy, particularly in Africa. (Baker,2008).Generally, throughout the world rural children were more likely to be engaged in economic labour activities compared to urban children, because poverty is more prevalent in rural areas especially among those who depend on agriculture(Akarro& Mtweve, 2011). Poor rural families considers making their children work in farms, may increase household’s income (Serwadda-Luwaga,2005). Rickey (2009) points out that many rural areas lack basic services such as electricity and access to drinking water. In such cases their children must fetch water especially girls, who are more involved in housework.
Child labour also exists in cities. According to World Bank, child worker is typically a sign of urban poverty in many countries, and special in Sub-Saharan Africa. Urban children usually are involved in domestic work or sales. Their working conditions are very poor, unhealthy and crowded. They work for long hours with very low wage or no wage. Girls are usually the most vulnerable; they are typically trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation in urban centres such as Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi (Baker, 2008). They face many problems due to poverty. Poor urban children are at particular risk of many problems such as lack of education, healthcare and social protection (Baker, 2008). Urban children attend more to school than rural children. Urban areas provide better educational access, quality and infrastructure than rural areas. For poor rural children living far off from school, transportation cost often becomes a challenging
affair for their families (Hueble, 2008). According to Edmonds (2007) rural children work more and for longer hours than urban regions. Regarding attendance, due to limited access to school rural children are more likely to be involved in child labour. Moreover, urban and rural areas differ in the terms of how schooling and child labour are related. Education levels are generally very low among children in rural areas.
3.4 Gender differentials in child labour
There is gender discrimination among child labour. Boys and girls often do different jobs and its differs by country and industry, for instance boys are more economically active than girls in Latin American countries like Bolivia and Colombia, but in Africa such as Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana, girls are more involved in economic activities. Girls and boys can be found in different types of economic activities. For example boys are more concentrated in manufacturing, trade, restaurants, hotels, and transport, while girls are more concentrated in agriculture and domestic work(World Bank: 2005).
Another study by Edmonds (2007) found that a large number of child labourers are engaged in domestic works who are employed by private households, for example Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. Edmonds (2007) assumes that boys in Bangladesh tend to engage more in industrial activities than girls. Boys are more likely to be found in fishing, wood furniture manufacturing, construction site, retail trade of grocery ,while girls are likely to work in textile, handcrafting and in private household services.
Mamadou (2009) asserts that boys tend to be engaged more in economic activities, while girls are more involved in household chores or taking care of siblings. In general, girls are often made invisible in labour whereas they represent a very large proportion of working children. This is because, parents often have to decide to send only some of their children to school, and it is often the girl who loses out(Bhat: 2010). Ray (2001) carried out a research in Nepal and Pakistan. Where he assumed that gender bias was more prevalence in case of Pakistan than compared to Nepal. In Pakistan boys are more likely work longer hours than girls and rural children are poorer than urban, while it was the opposite in Nepal.
3.5 Child labour and poverty
Poverty create many problems such as child labour, prostitution, corruption, robbery, increased unemployment, poor living conditions, malnutrition etc. ( Owolabi,2012;Ekpenyong& Sibirii, 2011). Child poverty refers to children who are born to poor parents. Child poverty differs from adult poverty because it has different reasons and effects, for example it robs a child of his/her childhood. It may affect or bear a long lasting or psychological make up in their mind and the impact of poverty during childhood leaves permanent effects on children. Poverty influences children in many social ways, for instance that malnutrition can affect health and education which in turn may impact a child’s long term development (Ortiz et al.2012). According to UNICEF child poverty is based on child rights, these children lack adequate nutrition, lack
decent water and sanitation facilities, health services, education and information (Ortiz et al.2012).
Practically, poor people face inadequate basic needs such as food, clothing, health facilities etc. People who live below poverty line, live in sever housing conditions and poor sanitary and hygienic conditions. Many of them live in slums or poor residential areas and some of them lack hosing, health care and nutrition sufficiency. Although illiteracy is far more prevalent among poor people, many of them lack education or they drop out of school because of high cost of schooling. In general, poor people earn little and in such cases parents are not able to take care of all the responsibilities of their children and they oblige their children to work to increase household income (Khan,2001). Hosen (2010) showed that in Bangladesh poor rural parents can barley afford food let alone pay for school fees for their children.
Several empirical studies show the link between living standards and child labor. Krueger (1996) showed evident trend from cross-country sample, that low income households are more likely to send their children to labour market which is uncommon in richer households. Duryea, Lam, and Levison (2007) found in urban Brazil that the father's unemployment compels their children to work to in order increase families income.
Aqil (2012) assumes that when parents have worked in their childhood their children will work as well, passing it from generation to a generation. As a result, once they are grown, they become uneducated and low-skilled. Therefore parents’ education plays a vital role in children education as it can increase the possibility for their children to have a good education (Aqil, 2012; Wahba, 2000). Fasih (2007) assumes that child labour creates unskilled and uneducated labour which in turn affects country’s development and economy.
3.6 Types of child labour
Child labourers are involved in many different forms of works, which include risks and hazards. These children are vulnerable to physical pain and injury particularly being exposed to health hazards (Levison& Murray, 2005). According to ILO (2012) the vast majority of child labour is involved in hazardous occupations such as agriculture, mining, manufacture, construction bonded child labour, domestic work and fishing. Environmental and occupational conditions can impact on the health and development of the children. Children working in different sectors such as agriculture, factories, domestic labour, sex workers and carrying out their illicit activities, migrant labourers, and on the streets as vendors etc. The effect of job and activities can vary from a country to a country. Also working conditions, ages and gender of children involved in the differences too (O. O’Donnell et al., 2002). According to Amon et al., (2012) mainly child labourers in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Southeast Asia are involved in the worst forms of child labour , which persists such as child trafficking, bonded child labour, child domestic work, hazardous child labour, etc. More than 90 percent of working children in hazardous jobs which are exposed to chemicals, and dangerous tools.
3.7The International Organizations
The International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) are two of the predominant international agencies working against child labour. The ILO support governments on setting policies or convention as well as implementing numerous programs. These include direct projects such as offering vocational training to children and indirect projects to strengthen the skill of government officials employers and organizations workers’. The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) improves the healthcare and the quality of education. The ILO set two international labour standard conventions, which are presented as the following. The aim of two conventions are to protect the children from exploited employment, unsafe and unhealthy work and set a minimum age, children under the age of fourteen are not allowed to work. Many organizations like ILO and UNICEF and scholars recommend that child labour can be tackled through public and education policy. (Bhat,2010;Bhat et al,2009) Moreover, many countries around the world have established child labour laws; however some countries have failed or could not achieve that goal because of social economic problems; such as poverty which makes poor families to push many children into labour market to increase family income. Huebler(2008) suggested that policy on child labour is not effective for society if the family lacks basic human needs. They are forced to send children to earn money ignoring the policies on education.
Betcherman el., (2004) claims this is because of most child labourers work in rural areas or work for their families, or remain invisible working in domestic homes and unregistered establishments (Betcherman el., 2004).
3.7.1 ILO Convention No. 138 on the minimum age for admission to employment and work (1973)
The ILO’s Convention No. 138 Minimum Age Convention ratified by 161 countries and adopted by International Labour Organization in 1973. The main aim of ILO’s Convention 138 is to set a minimum age for employment and that children under fifteen years of age should not be working. For light work the age should not be under thirteen, harmful to a child’s health and does not interfere with their school. Children under eighteen are not allowed to work in hazardous work. On the other hand, State Parties allow some types of hazardous work from the age of sixteen if they provide adequate protection and training. Some countries like Brazil, China and Kenya have already set the minimum age for hazardous work at sixteen years (ILO,2012). While the ILO Convention 138, has reduced child labour in some places, many consumers in North America and Europe prohibits imports made by child worker or boycotted companies using child labour in their supply chains. For example in Bangladesh garment industry removed 50,000 children who were involved in poor condition with less payment, and mostly girls under the age fourteen were removed from work( Betcherman et al., 2004).
3.7.2 ILO Convention No. 182 on the worst forms of child labour (1999)
The term Worst forms of child labour was found by ILO, and 174 countries ratified ‘Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention 182’ in 1999, which focuses on elimination of hazards in child labour under the age of eighteen. It prohibits all types of jobs such bonded labour,
to protect children under a certain age from workplace, although child labour laws are very
difficult to enforce.
Most countries have child labour laws
prostitution pornography, illicit activities, trafficking child soldiers, or jobs which are dangerous or unhealthy moral damage,
(ILO, 2012; Aqal, 2012; Miller, 2010). ILO stated that the largest numbers of child labourers are involved in worst forms of child labour and 115 million children are working in hazardous works and the total number of child workers in the worst forms is increasing. One of the reasons that Dessy and Pallage(2003) pointed out was children easily can get the harmful forms of jobs. Usually parents are aware that their children are involved in unacceptable and harmful jobs, but they are forced to send their children into Worst-Forms jobs. However poor households do not usually think of the consequences. That is why the Convention 182 is promoting governments, and civil society organizations' resources on working against child labour. In recent years the number of child labour in hazardous work dramatically increased hence the ILO set the goal of eliminating the worst forms of child labour
by 2016 (Amon et al., 2012; Miller,2010).
3.8 The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
The United Nations established the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1989. Almost all nations signed the convention but there are three countries; Somalia, South Sudan and the United States which have not ratified it yet. As opposed to the ILO Minimum Age Convention the CRC contains provisions on human rights for children. The CRC consists of 54 articles which are internationally recognized and include civil political, economic, social and cultural rights widely ratified in human rights agreement today. CRC makes the state primary education compulsory and free, and it encourages the development of secondary education, including vocational training.
There are five provisions in CRC which support child labour. The definition of child that CRC defines in (Article 1) is a person who is under the age of eighteen. (Article 19) Children need protection from violence and exploitation (Article 28), children need protection from sexual exploitation and abuse. (Articles 32) every child should be protected from work exploitation and from hazardous jobs which hinder children’s education, or harm their health and development. (Article 34) mentions all children have the right to access primary education and in (Article 34), a child has right to be protected from all forms of exploitation (Article 36) (Aqil, 2102).
The United Nations (UN) adopted the Millennium Declaration on year 2000. The aim of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to achieve eight goals by 2015; 1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2) Achieve universal primary education 3)Promote gender equality and empower women4) Reduce child mortality5) Improve maternal health 6). Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases7). Ensure environmental sustainability 8) Develop a global partnership for development (Rena,2009).
The Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) has greatly reduced the problem of child labour, for example by the fight against poverty, which forces children into work. Universal primary education can also help free children from the workforce,
that exposes children to physical, psychological,
or sexual abuse.
Like working in streets for long hours or begging money.
hazardous works are
happening in poor countries, where children lack access to healthcare infrastructure or basic
information on health risks and protective measurements
and the promotion of gender equality can reduce discrimination against the education of girls and lessen the traditional burdens which keep them in their own households. A large number of child labourers are HIV/AIDS orphaned, so child labour can also be mitigated by reducing HIV/AIDS deaths ( Okusa, 2008).
3. 9Tackling child labour on International instruments
Many strategies have been developed for the eradication of child labour, some of which are innovative ideas from international organisations such as International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) created in 1992 which focuses on protecting children from exploitative work and promoting free education. IPEC monitors and takes immediate action to prohibit and eradicate the worst forms of child labour. IPEC cooperates with the governments, employers and workers. The programme is running in fifteen countries from Eastern Europe, Asia (Central, South, and Southeast regions), North Africa, and Lebanon (Miller; 2010). Other partners are also working among the wide network of organizations that combat child labour and includes government agencies, international agencies and some non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working towards combating child labour and advocate children’s right such as International Save the Children Alliance (ISCA) established in 1919, Anti-Slavery International and Global March Against Child Labour found in 1998 (Weston; 2005).
Governments of countries all over the world have different policies and programmes across borders to directly or indirectly combat child labour menace, example of this is the Cash Transfer Programme; today many countries have conditional cash transfer programmes which promote cash deposit as a relief to poor families, such as Bolsa Escola, the Brazilian Child Labor Eradication Program (PETI), Mexican Program for Education, Health and Nutrition (PROGRESA), Bangladesh’s Food-for-Education (FFE) program. One of the biggest programmes is Bolsa Escola; which is an anti-poverty program of the Brazilian government; The Bolsa programme was implemented in 1990s .The aim of the program is to break the poverty cycle, rising and improving educational attainment and combating child labour. The program provides several forms of subsidies such as educational stipend and food supplement support. The program has increased while dropout rates have decreased (Sakurai,2006). Studies suggest the disadvantage of cash transfer programmes in low-income countries is that these programmes are less helpful at combating child labour than they are at increasing schooling. While other studies suggest these programmes rises income for poor households and can reduce the number of child labour, (Emerson & Knabb; 2005) for example, Edmonds (2006) assumes that number of child labour in South Africa declined and more children attend school when poor families get money (ILO, 2013).
Ravallion and Wodon (2000) found evidence that a food-for-education programme in Bangladesh did indeed raised school enrollment. Skoufias and Parker (2001) found that the conditional cash transfer programme, PROGRESA, in Mexico showed the programmes has impact on both school enrollment and child labour.
4 Socio-economic factors related to child labour
This chapter presents the theoretical framework, which is based on the socio -economic factors that causes child labour.
4.1 Poverty as root cause
There are several circumstances that affect child labour. Studies have demonstrated that the most notable reason being poverty (Bhat& Rather,2009). Decisions about child labour and schooling are generally made by parents. If the family live below the poverty line, parents see children as part of contributor in their family income. Basu (1998) used a theoretical model of child labour, where he showed the only reason parents send children to labour is because of their low income. Consequently poor parents cannot afford schooling for their children. Thus, mainly poor households are to send forced their children to labour instead of sending to school. Rena (2009) shows that that poverty and underdevelopment drives child labour. She found that the high prevalence of poverty amongst countries, including India, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Papua New Guinea, Ethiopia, Uganda, Mozambique, Malawi, Sudan, and Chad increases the child labour. Therefore, child labour is widespread throughout Africa, and Asia. According to the studies of Edmonds and Pavcnik (2005); O'Donnell et al. (2005) and Akarro and Mtweve (2011) they assume that tackling poverty can be a perfect solution to reduce child labour. Beside poverty, many factors influence the incidence of child labour which can be listed in the following points.
4.2 Family size
Indeed, large poor households usually have more children involved in child labour than children from smaller households, which demonstrates family size have an effect on child labour. Parents oblige their children to work because they are not able to manage the demands of a large size family. There is also gender differences among household size. Not everyone and of all age in the family are working as child labour, which depends on the child’s age and gender, for example boys are more likely to attended to school than girls. Older siblings often contribute more to the family income (Ahamd, 2012; Boyden J and Myers, 1998). Okpukpara et al., (2006) found that in Nigeria, younger children, where are more likely to go to school than older children, where mostly boys attend schools than girls.
4.3 Family condition
A growing number of children who have either lost one or both the parents and those impacted
by HIV/ADIS in the family, are forced to work in order to support themselves and their siblings. The numbers of orphaned children are increasing particularly in sub Saharan Africa, many whom become street children, and live in very different circumstances (Vandenberg,2007).
4.4 Traditional or cultural factor
Culture is another factor which is driving children into labour market. Different cultures of many
societies make children start work at very young age which are related to traditions and cultural factors. They assumed that children need to learn skills that can be good for their future. According to Tauson (2009) in rural Guatemala; parents prefer their children to work because
they consider it beneficial for them as they learn work skills. Obinna E and Osita-Oleribe (2007) assume that many families in Africa want their children to help in contributing towards family income.
Corruption is the one of main reason for abusing resources, wherever there is poverty; there is also corruption(Murphy,2005).According to United Nations Development Programme(UNDP) (2012)“Corruption exacerbates poverty and inequality, undermines human development and stability, encourages and sustains conflict, violates human rights, and erodes the democratic functioning of countries.”
Onyemachi(2010) points out that corruption among government officials is another reason that hinders social and economic growth and increases poverty. Corruption can have hugely negative effect on children’s right that deprives basic services such as health care, education and infrastructure. Corruption can diminish children’s ability to escape poverty. For example in many countries employers corrupt labour inspectors to hire underage children such as India, where the incidence of large number of child labourers indicates towards corruption (United Nations Development Programm,2012).
The war destroys the economy of the country, people become much poor and all resources go to the war. As Doucet noted in a BBC articles on September 25, 2013 that Syrian refugee families who have fled Syria's civil war send their children to work to earn money for basic necessities of life. These children are are exposed to exploitation. Wars burn all good things that any country could have. It brings diseases, poverty, damages, and many other horrible things. Again, no help will be of use as long as the
war is continues.
4.7 Urban migration
Many rural families migrate to urban areas because of rural push and urban pull factors. As a consequence of that, they are often forced to live and work in the street as they lack access to basic requirements such as food, shelter etc. and these children become street workers as vendors. Mostly street workers are vulnerable to violence and become more susceptible to illegal works, such as stealing, trafficking drugs and prostitution (Yadav & Sengupta ,2009). These children live in urban poverty, many child labourers live in unhealthy poor conditions slum areas and work in poor environment such as domestic work, or work in hotels and restaurants etc. (Serwadda-Luwaga,2005)
Many cities in developing countries have experienced rapid urbanization. This means that the population is increasing in cities due to immigration and natural growth. Urban poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon. Urban poverty in developing countries faces many challenges in their daily lives. Many poor people living under great hardship, due to unemployment, housing
The civil war is another factor contributing to child labour.
shortages, violence and unhealthy environments. The problem of poverty can have weaknesses in the economy and lack of equity to the provision of services (Shitole 2005:129). Poverty refers to a function of social, economic and political structures and processes that creates unequal distribution of resources, both within and in the global context between communities(Lister 2004:51). Increased urbanization has resulted in poverty in the cities. Urban poverty raises slums. These areas are characterized by high unemployment, poor sanitation, inadequate access to clean drinking water and inadequate housing. According to Dash (2013) many poor rural areas migrates to Delhi, where migrant families and their children are forced to work for survival and economic opportunities.
Globalization is another cause of child labour. Globalization has positive and negative impacts, nevertheless; globalization might give developing countries the opportunity to increase their gross domestic production (GDP) per capita via new trade possibilities and ascend their foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows. Globalization also has brought adverse impacts on child labour in developing countries. In recent years, many international companies moved their production abroad. These companies often indulge in hiring children as cheap labours as they are endurable, and carry out commands given by their employers even if they’re abused and exploited (Mapaure, 2009). Mishra(2012) claims that in India, globalization has obliged more children to work in hazardous occupations like brick kiln , motor garage, hotels, shops, transportations, manual loading work etc.
Some studies suggest that higher income and higher standard of living can reduce the potential problem which resulted from the increasing child labour of globalization (Congdon Fors,2012). Other argues that globalization will increase the opportunity of exploiting cheap labour specially from low income countries. For example countries like Vietnam, Mexico and Thailand have provided evidence that child labour declines due to globalization, but countries like Bolivia and Zambia have showed a decline in schooling and an increase in child labour(Mishra,2012).
4.9 Relationship between Child Labour, Family income and Education
Lack of education or poor quality education is another factors that contribute to high incidence of child labour. Education is considered one of the main alternatives to abolish child labour. Practically family income affects children's education and poor parents cannot afford to pay for children however, children are compel to work and are less enrolled. In the following section provides an overview between education and child labour and how education is most important potential substitute for child labour second the reasons why children do not attend school. Third, how children combining work and school. Finally the impacts of child labour on education.
4.9.1 Child labour and schooling
Several studies and international organizations such as ILO UNICEF, UNESCO and World Bank have confirmed that education can reduce child labour (Kruger,2007). According to Budhwani et al. (2004) and Bhat et al. (2009) education can be significant for development, for example education can make children develop and learn resulting in intelligent societies in the future, besides education can provide skilled workers. Also, education can improve children’s life both for themselves and their families. Besides, well educated children can learn how to be grateful to society and be likely to are charitable in the future when they grow up.
According to Khan (2007) children who lack education or drop out of their school, usually lack knowledge and are more vulnerable to exploitation. As a result they become uneducated or unskilled labour. A number of agencies such as IPEC-ILO, UNICEF, UNESCO and World Bank are fighting against child labour by trying to provide access to education to all children (UNICEF, UNESCO, 2008). They consider that education is a first a priority. Thus UNICEF is working with other aid agencies, governments and UN agencies to meet the UN Millennium Development Goals by 2015 to ensure primary education to all children. Today many countries have already achieved the goal of universal primary education. But, the progress is still very slow in low income countries, for example in Sub-Saharan Africa.
According to Akarro and Mtweve (2011) the number of primary and secondary school remains low in developing countries because millions of children are being forced to work instead of going to school. Although there could be different reasons other than child labour, which affects primary school enrollment. Parental unemployment, poor quality of teachers and high cost of education, unfortunately have affected enrollment rates in low income countries (Sakurai,2006).
4.9.2 The opportunity costs of education
The cost of education is another problem amongst poor households. This has contributed to the exploitation of children. Schools need to be affordable and accessible. Kondylis and Marco (2006) assume, that schools available in developing countries may help to increase school enrollment but may not reduce the incidence of child labour. For example it shows in rural Tanzania many children drop out school and contribute to household income.
Bhat (2010) argues that the quality education can help to keep children away from work, consequently it is important for a school to have educated teachers in adequate numbers to maintain high students teacher ratio in the classrooms. However for many poor parents it can be costly to send their children to school, as they families live on children’s income and cannot afford school fees, uniforms or other additional costs. (Bhat,2010). This is a problem in developing countries to provide quality free primary education because it will cost money for governments (Budhwani et al. 2004).
Betcherman et al., (2004) assumed that schools need improving through quality teaching and learning. It is somehow very important that each country provides educational policies to increase education amongst children. Bhat (2011) emphasized that compulsory education legislation can help children to attend school and tackle child labour, the policy programme regarding child labour must provide free good quality and compulsory education to working
children in poor regions. Baht meant that quality education for children up to fifteen years should be provided. This is how the flow of children into the labour market can be reduced by providing working children and former working children with educational opportunities(Baht, 2011).
It is both illegal for children to be out of school and for them to work. On the other hand there are many children combing work with school or dropping out of school. There are large drop outs in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan with 13 million children drop out-of-school and rising. Pakistan alone has 7.3 million primary school aged children, not enrolled in school (Brown, 2012). Parents consider sending their children to work instead of school because of the cost of education , poor quality lack of teachers and school supplies or poor teaching.
4.9.3Combining school and work
Many children have to work in order to be able to go to school and cover the direct costs of household income. ILO states that if a child combines school with work it might be difficult for him or her to attend school because of long hours work can interfere with class or homework (ILO;2004). However, some studies argue that child labour does not have an impact on children’s school attendance. These include ; Omokhodion and Odusote (2006), they argued that child labour and schooling may not be linked because many child labourers who attend school also work , to enhance family income and school fees. For children in Kenya, Moyi (2011) shows 45% of the children in the study combine work and education, only 5% of the children devote their time exclusively to work. Haile and Haile (2011) using survey data from rural Ethiopia show that boys are more prone to attend school and to combine school with family economic activity . However, girls are more apt to combine domestic work with school or involved in domestic work with no school attendance.
Khan (2001) claims many child labourers attend school, and work after school. As they need to increase family income and also to pay for their schooling (Khan,2001). Another study by Ravallion and Wodon’s (2000) found that child labour in Bangladesh have no impact on school enrollment. However, other empirical studies suggest that the consensus of child labour impact school enrollment and is harmful. Some studies have also found evidence of the adverse consequences of child labour on school grades. According to Psacharopoulos (1997) when a is child working(under certain employment) it can impede their school enrollment. Khanam and Russell (2005) study on Bangladesh provides evidence that child labour affect children education, and many girls do not go to school.
4.9.4 The impact of child labour on educational achievement
Both of these organizations, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) education and two ILO conventions, the Minimum Age Convention (No. 138, 1973) and the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (No. 182, 1999) cover child labour and their right to education. ILO stated that education has a large contribution in abolishing child labour and good quality education is an useful tool in prevention of child labour (ILO, 2004).
The reasons for dropout amongst children are many, however, poverty being the main factor. Shikdar et al., (2013) found evidence that in Bangladesh more than 30 percent people live in
extreme poverty. These families are deprived of their basic needs, and their life conditions are very poor. Many families cannot adequately fulfil their basic needs; meanwhile parents oblige children to engage in risky jobs at an early age. The numbers of child labour is increasing in Bangladesh, due to family condition which can have an adverse influence on children’s educational with about 50% of primary school children drops out before they complete their fifth grade. Young Kim, (2009) assumes that in Cambodia most children have access to basic education but still combine school and work, due to poverty.
5 Comparing child labour in India and Nigeria
There are several key factors that affect child labour in India most notably is poverty. Child labour in India is to be found in almost every sector of the informal economy. The state of Uttar Pradesh has the highest child labour population followed by Andhra Pradesh. As Singh mentioned in The Times of India article on October,18,2013 that Uttar Pradesh has the highest number 20 % of India ‘s child labourers ,children between the aged of ten to fourteen years old .The rate of poverty is highest among people in Uttar Pradesh however, the proportion of urban population living in slums. The region is dominated by families with large sizes generally people are living in households with eight members.
There is gender difference that existed between boys and girls in India.There are more male children are involved in economic activity than female children. Since girl’s work is more invisible and as a result hidden and not reported.
The high incidence of child labour is much higher in rural areas than urban areas and most of the child labour in rural areas is engaged in agricultural activities .During 2009-10 the numbers of child labour in the age of group five to fourteen years has declined by ten per cent, but still a large numbers of children working specially in rural India, because of the agricultural activities (Sharma et al, 2012).However, the incidence of child labour in rural areas are high than urban areas. Although most of child labourers prepositioned from the poor households and poverty is more prevalent in rural areas than urban India. Another reason is bonded labour which is usually common in rural areas in India where traditional class or caste. Migrant labourers, are mostly vulnerable to bonded labour because they have no choice sources of credit so, due to debt their whole family forcing their children work as bonded labour.
Since independency, the Nigerian’s political situation has been very unstable the country has been facing with so many problems, which have affected the levels of poverty, high rates of unemployment and inflation etc. During the end of the oil boom of the 1970s has driven millions of children into work in order to increase the family income and ensure survival.
The incidence of child labour is highest in North East than any other regions in Nigeria (Okpukpara et al., 2006) Poverty in Nigeria is chronic due to among others prostitution, corruption, robbery, street life, and increased unemployment. Urbanization is also causes child labour in Nigeria, many cities are growing faster in Nigeria due to rural urban migration. Street hawking is common forms of child labour in Nigeria cities both boys and girls engage it between twelve and seventeen years. As result they become street children (Nseabasi &Abiodun ,2010). HIV/AIDS have combined to prevent in Nigeria. Many children in Nigerian children had been orphaned by HIV and AIDS. As a consequence HIV/AIDS contribute the incidence of child labour high.
The most common forms of work performed by children in Nigeria are: farming, selling, street vendors and domestic servant. Besides domestic work, agriculture children are involved in trafficking, According to Elijah and Okoruwa (2006) child trafficking is a problem in Nigeria which are caused by corruption among government officials and commercial sexual exploitation of children. Many children are trafficked, especially from neighboring countries such as Cameroon, Gabon, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Togo and other West African countries to work in agricultural enterprises, as domestic servants, prostitutes or in other forced labour conditions and at time girls are sometimes sold into marriage(Elijah & Okoruwa,2006).
Corruption creates poverty and lack of knowledge. Unfortunately, without solving corruption there will be no solution for child labour problem. Any fund or any help given to these countries will be used by the persons that abuse them. Children will never benefit from the external resources and the problem will continue. No matter how much effort is made on these countries behalf, they will still not manage their resources properly, perpetuating the problem. There are many examples in the world where the country is very in of natural resources but still the country is suffering from all kind of problems, child labour being one of them. For example a country like Nigeria, is Africa’s third richest country because the country has large oil, even though poverty is very pervasive in Nigeria. Millions of children are forced to work in order to support the family and to survive (Owolabi,2012;Ekpenyong& Sibirii, 2011). Children are vulnerable to exploitation, violence, drug and poor children don’t have basic education and have no access to health care services. As Onyemachi (2010) argues that corruption hinders social and economic growth and increases poverty. As result corruption also drags the whole country’s development down by stealing its resources, however the money is abused and citizens are suffering from all kind of problems. The international organizations try to help these countries, but as long as corruption exist, no forward steps will be a success.
5.1.3 The legal framework in India and Nigeria
Nigeria adopted three International Labour Organisation (ILO), the ILO Conventions No. 138 and No. 182, CRC. In addition, the country signed a memorandum of understanding in cooperation with ILO to launch a country programme under the International Programme for Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC).Despite the child labour laws and educational enforcement requirements that are in force in Nigeria, still many children are forced to work and exposed to unhealthy environments and sexual.
Government of India has various laws to protect children from being engaged in economic activity although still the number of child labour is very high. The Child Labour Prohibition and
Regulation act1986 does not apply all children up to the age of eighteen only a person who has not completed his/her fourteen years of age in certain occupation and process is prohibited. Furthermore the act allows children to work with their family. According article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child every child should be protected against economic exploitation. Although, India has lack of political solution or follows upping their laws; the country is the home to the largest number of children in the world. This is one of the reasons that make the issue so complex and difficult to eradicate child labour. Due to high huge amount of child labour appears in rural areas and some of rural child labour is often invisible as it is hidden it is quite difficult to identify and eliminate or regulate.
Murphy (2005) assumes that child labour legislation in India has been unsuccessful due to a majority portion of such child labour may happen in a rural setup, where tending to their own domestic need may not be even considered or appreciated as child labour. In urban set up, there is an age old practice of the concept of house maids. At times underage children may often are employed, and they are treated very badly, and in case anyone complains the police comes and takes action. Also, it gets very difficult for such a large country and population to be monitored and checked.
It is important to consider why children are involved in child labour. There are several socio - economic and demographical factors involved. Some of the child labour forms cannot be influenced easily by policy makers. Like collecting firewood or fetching water. Many rural household don’t have access to basic service like access to clean water and children are used to fetching water. In this context, it may be worthwhile to note government must first realize the cause which leads to child labour. Child labour prevails in many forms in both countries within the formal and informal sector. Both countries prohibit worst forms of child labour yet many children are exposed to physical, psychological or sexual abuse. However, there is lack of legislation that the law does not cover children’s work in domestic service or agricultural sectors where the majority of children are involved. Consequently the laws of policies are not adequately implemented(Murphy,2005)The child labour policies must be effectively enforced throughout the country as well.
Furthermore, it is not only enough to establish policies and laws the government must act to improve the living conditions of the poor households. Rural urban migration is a problem in developing countries e.g. cities in Nigeria are growing faster where poor rural people are migrating in search of better life. However, often they are left with no jobs and forced to live in slums. The children growing up in slums tend drop more out of school and become child labour. A responsible government should notice this and devote itself to make better welfare programme for the citizens, especially for the poor. If the parents of the children cannot find jobs to support families, the situation relapse, thus governments should create more opportunities for citizens. Another way could be developing the economy of the rural areas, where people can have a better living condition and the number of immigrations will shrink. Building more roads connecting the rural areas and the urban areas will help the villagers have a better connection with the outside world, and the products of agriculture from the rural area can be transported to the urban more easily, this will stimulate the increasing of rural economy and keep people home rather than immigrating to slums. Besides, strict laws must be made and carried out seriously. Government should be aware of cases where the child labour may have lost one or both parent, and offer them orphanage a commendation, shelters and necessary living expenses for education.
5.1.4 Determinants of child labour and school attendance in India and Nigeria
Lack of education provisions is also a problem in both India and Nigeria. Primary education is compulsory but not enforced, mainly in the rural part of the countries. In rural Nigeria, child labourers have lower school attendance compared to their urban working children. In case of education in rural India fewer girls are enrolled in schools than boys.
Some may hold the opinion (Bhat,2010; Bhat et al,2009) that education is the cure for child labour. Furthermore, governments in India and Nigeria have been adapted and implemented various educational policies, and made education compulsory up to a certain age for all children. However, school attendance is a persistent problem and school dropout rates are high while the child labour is also growing vigorously. So, what is behind all this? Again poverty can withdraw children from school. Basumatary (2012) claims that in India many organizations have been promoting education for all children, however, there have been high rate of school dropouts in India, because of poor economic conditions(Basumatary, 2012). Ahmad (2012) carried out a research in Aligarh city of Uttar Pradesh in India, where he assumes that poor children under the age of fourteen years are obliged to work in different sector. According to him the city has low school participation however children are forced to work due to poverty. About 90 per cent of child labour are illiterate. Many of these children are migrant workers, the majority coming from surrounding areas of Aligarh district and Bihar, who are force to work to increase family income.
Besides poverty there other causes that make children do not attend school or drop out of school like poor quality of school, culture, gender discrimination. With regard to gender difference, in Nigeria girls are often forced to drop out of school and placed into early marriages, domestic and agricultural labour, or street vending. While boys are more likely attend to school than girls. Girls in India have considerably lower school enrollment rates than boys.
Furthermore, rural families and urban families have a huge difference of income, tuition fees may not be a problem for an urban family, but the same amount of money can be headache for rural family. Poor quality of schools can reduce the number of children which is a problem in developing countries and many schools suffer from overcrowding, inadequate sanitation, under- skilled or uneducated teachers. Therefore, parents see little use in sending their children to school when they could be at home learning a skill (for example, agriculture) and supplementing family income. However improving incentives for schooling with quality education through better teachers, curricula and materials, or other reforms can encourage parents to send their children to school. Although the control parents have over the decision-making process, their perception of the value of school is a main determinant of child attendance. Parents who are educated understand the importance of schooling from personal experience.
With regard to the relationship between education and child labour, many child labourers work and also attend school. It is poverty which forces these children to work. This is a global problem but there are variations depending on which nation is involved. In addition, many parents do not have a problem with their children working and attending school but they are not always aware of the consequences for the child. Furthermore, education of child alone cannot do without education of parent and society re-evaluation of the core value for children and humanity. If this
is done in a sincere way, it will not only solve the child labour problem however can improve the thinking process. The triggering point is poverty and international organization should look into how living standards of a family can be improved by relieving high cost responsibility off their shoulders; if the health can be subsidised or made available, if education is made free, social amenities are made to be within reach at no cost and many loose end like that are taken care of.
5.1.5 Correlates of child labour
Child labour are comprised of poverty, cultural traditions, lack of quality education and HIV/AIDS. Poverty is the most notable that pushing children into workforce in order to increase the family income. As Basu (1998) argues the reason parents send children to work is because of their low income household.
Rapid rural-to- urban migration is contribute to increasing rate of child labor in urban areas of developing countries. Families leave the severity of agricultural working conditions for cities in order to search for better life that often do not exist. In Uttar Pradesh, India has high rural-to- urban migration. As fact of that many people living in urban poverty. Even though many cities in Nigeria growing faster as Serwadda-Luwaga(2005) points out many children work such as domestic work or, forced begging , work on the streets or work in hotel and restaurant etc.
The conception about who is a child and what comprises child labour is quite different across cultures. As in Indian and Nigerian societies believe the work that children perform can help children to learn new skills, necessary for their survival in the future (Vaknin,2009).These children are used to working at a very young age, which is actually child labour, against the regulations made by CRC that the minimum age for working children is eighteen. They also regard a person under eighteen as a child and a person over eighteen as an adult. But these are cultural matters related to customs and traditions which are out of date but still cannot be easily changed by the regulations of the government. Globalization is also identified as cause of child trafficking and forced labour. Children who work as domestic work especially girls have been trafficked. Practically children considered as cheap labour.
Furthermore, parents educational can play a meaningful role in children’s life, Emerson and Souza (2002) assume parents with no education usually send their children to work to contribute household’s income.
Educated parents are more be inclined to knowledgeable about the
importance of education for children and keep children in school by creating an environment
conducive for learning (such as directly helping with schoolwork).
The problem of child labour appears in severe form and various factors are involved. The reasons for the incidence of child labour in both countries are complex and deeply rooted into the society. Poverty seems to be the main cause. In general poor children contribute to household income. Child labour can be found in urban and rural areas. However the vast majority of child labour occurs in rural areas since poverty is more rampant. Although, many poor rural families struggle for a better life in urban areas, this pushes families to force their children to work in order to increase the family income and ensure survival. Study found children under the age of fourteen years are still engaged in economic activity in India and Nigeria. These children tend to work more consequently they are not regularly in school. However, besides poverty there are other causes such lack of schools, lack of regulations and enforcement, corruption, lack of awareness and rapid population growth.
Nigeria has ratified all the important instruments concerning the issue, the ILO Conventions No. 138 and No. 182, CRC. Which for India has not been yet possible because it is not ratified, the ILO Conventions. The governments of Indian and Nigerinan have enacted strategic policies which includes the prohibitation of all forms of child labour. India introduced national legislation through Child Labour Prohibition and Regulation act1986. Both countries have their child labour problem even though they have some kind of solutions provided by the government or NGOs. Any attempt to solve this problem should take in mind the root cause behind the problem and how it can be solved. Corruption could lead to the collapse of the country. Poverty and poor quality education is one of the major causes behind the problem, no magic solution are there. However, a successive and continuous controlling of countries resources and possibilities leads to a continued development. Building and establishing new culture were people refrain corruption, and take their responsibilities in developing their
country is the only way to survive in all challenges that the country could face.
Details about the child labour are very similar in India and Nigeria. Children who work are both boys and girls and the majority of them start working are under the age of fourteen. The most common forms of work performed by children are: agriculture, and domestic service. The incidences of child labour in India are high in rural areas than urban areas, while child labour in Nigeria is more rampant in urban centers due to rapid urbanization.
Furthermore female children in India are more invisible than male child labour. In Nigeria the gender difference is not as prominent as in India. Many children in India and Nigeria under the aged of eighteen are unprotected and children are denied the right to an education. Even though, both governments provide education for all children up to fourteen years. Since poverty is key factors that force children out of school into labour and enforcement alone cannot help solve it, government should improving the economic conditions of their families. Both India and Nigeria have weak legal protection of children in labour market. The legislations in both countries have
Both India and Nigeria have been implementing policies and programmes to eradicate the child labour. Various policies and programmes are also created by organizations on the global
challenge of the child labour.
been inadequate due to several causes which impede child labour including poverty, inadequate policing and corruption.As a result, the policy enforcement has failed in India and Nigeria. Not only because the laws themselves have drawbacks, but also because of the human factors, and usually an international organizations and NGOs cannot fix the problem on their own, what they need is to intensify the cooperation with the governments who has the right of making laws. In a word, the key of the reduction of child labour is to emancipate children.
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Women EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN INDIA: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS
The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the state to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. ‘Empowerment’ may be described as a process which helps people to assert their control over the factors which affect their lives. Empowerment of women means developing them as more aware individuals, who are politically active, economically productive and independent and are able to make intelligent discussion in matters that affect them. Present article discusses about various initiatives taken by Government of India for empowering women by analysing position of India in Gender Inequality Index and Global Gender Gap Index of United Nations. Article concludes with the note that due recognition must be given to women and society should come forward to ensure equal status for women in all spheres of life.
‘EMPOWERMENT’ MAY be described as a process which helps people to assert their control over the factors which affect their lives. Empowerment of women means developing them as more aware individuals, who are politically active, economically productive and independent and are able to make intelligent discussion in matters that affect them.1 Women empowerment as a concept was introduced at the International women Conference in 1985 at Nairobi, which defined it as redistribution of social power and control of resources in favour of women.2 The United Nations
1U. Koko, “Empowering People for Health and Family Planning”, IASSI Quarterly, Vol.11, p. 2, 1992.
2Suman Panucha and Ankita Khatik, “Empowerment of Rural Woman”, Social Action, Vol. 55, p. 349, 2005.
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Development Fund for Women (UNDFW) includes the following factors in its definition of women empowerment:
• Acquiring knowledge and understanding of gender relations and the way in which these relations may be changed.
• Developing a sense of self-worth, a belief in one’s ability to secure desired changes and the right to control one’s life.3
Batliwala (1974) defines empowerment as “the process of challenging existing power relation and of gaining greater control over the source of power”. Women’s’ empowerment is seen as the process and the result of the process of:
• Challenging the ideology of male domination and women’s subordinations.
• Enabling women to gain equal access to and control over the resources (material, human and intellectual).4
EMPOWERED WOMEN’S CHARACTERISTICS
(i) Empowered women define their attitude, values and behaviours in relation to their own real interest. They have autonomy because they claim their freedom from existing male hierarchies, whether they live in traditional societies or modern industrial societies.
(ii) Empowered women maintain equal mindedness. They act out roles that challenge male dominance. They respond as equals and co-operate to work towards the common good.
(iii) Empowered women use their talent to live fulfilling lives. They not only survive the harshness of their own subjugation but also transcend their subjugation.
(iv) Empowered women maintain their strength on the face of pressures from the religion and work and contribute towards the empowerment of all women.
(v) Empowered women define their values and formulate their beliefs themselves, they do not derive their sense of being from male authorities nor do they live vicariously through men.5
3V.S. Ganeswamurthy, “Empowerment of Women in India—Social Economics and Political”, New Century Publications, New Delhi, p. 4, 2008.
4R.R. Kumari and K.N. Yadav, “Economic Reform and Empowerment of Women: Issues, Options and Concerns”, in N.K. Thakur and R.N. Thakur (eds) Impact of Economic Reform Policies on Dalit and Weaker Sections, Deep & Deep Publications, New Delhi, p. 106, 2008.
5Suman Parmecha and Ankita Khatik, op.cit., p. 353, 2005.
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Dimensions and Parameters of Women Empowerment
The process of empowerment has five dimensions, viz. Cognitive, psychological, economic, political and physical:
(i) The cognitive dimension refers to women having an understanding of the conditions and causes of their subordination at the micro and macro levels. It involves making choices that may go against cultural expectations and norms;
(ii) The psychological dimension includes the belief that women can act at personal and societal levels to improve their individual realities and the society in which they live;
(iii) The economic component requires that women have access to, and control over, productive resources, thus ensuring some degree of financial autonomy. However she notes that changes in the economic balance of power do not necessarily alter traditional gender roles or norms;
(iv) The political element entails that women have the capability to analyse, organise and mobilise for social change; and
(v) There is a physical element of gaining control over one’s body and sexuality and the ability to protect oneself against sexual violence to the empowerment process.6
The parameters of women empowerment are:
• Raising self-esteem and self-confidence of women.
• Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and girl child.
• Building and strengthening partnership with civil society particularly women’s organisations.
• Enforcement of constitutional and legal provisions and safeguarding rights of women.
• Building a positive image of women in the society and recognising their contributions in social, economic and political sphere.
• Developing ability among women to think critically.
• Fostering decision-making and collective action.
• Enabling women to make informed choices.
• Ensuring women’s participation in all walks of life.
• Providing information, knowledge, skills for self-employment.
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• Elimination of discrimination against women’s participation in the
– Access to food
– Equal wages
– Property rights
– Family resources
– Freedom of movement and travel
– Access to credit
– Control over savings, earnings and resources
– Guardianship and custody of children and their
• Gender sensitisation training in schools, colleges and other
professional institutions for bringing about institutional changes.7
Women have to swim against the stream that requires mere strength. Such strength comes from the process of empowerment. The women empowerment can be done through providing proper education, health and nutrition facilities.8
Indicators of Women Empowerment
Beijing Conference 1995 had identified certain quantitative and qualitative indicators of women empowerment. These indicators are discussed below:
(i) increase in self-esteem, individual and collective confidence;
(ii) increase in articulation, knowledge and awareness on health,
nutrition reproductive rights, law and literacy;
(iii) increase in personal leisure time and time for child care;
(iv) increase on decrease of workloads in new programmes;
(v) change in roles and responsibility in family and community;
(vi) visible increase on decrease in violence on women and girls;
(vii) responses to, changes in social customs like child marriage,
dowry, discrimination against widows;
(viii) visible changes in women’s participation level attending
meetings, participating and demanding participation;
(ix) increase in bargaining and negotiating power at home, in
community and the collective;
7Sandhya Rani Das, “Empowerment of Women: A Holistic Approach”, Women Education and Development, Discovering Publishing House, New Delhi, 2006, pp. 42-43.
8S. Manikandan, V. Raju and T. Taghu, “Women Empowerment for India’s Development”, Also see, V.S. Ganeswamurthy, op.cit., pp. 173-174, 2008.
EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN INDIA / 477
(x) increase access to and ability to gather information;
(xi) formation of women collectives;
(xii) positive changes in social attitudes;
(xiii) awareness and recognition of women’s economic contribution
within and outside the household;
(xiv) women’s decision-making over her work and income.
(a) demographic trends
– maternal mortality rate
– fertility rate
– sex ratio
– life expectancy at birth
– average age of marriage
(b) Number of women participating in different development programmes;
(c) Greater access and control over community resources/ government schemes—creche, credit cooperative, non-formal education;
(d) Visible change in physical health status and nutritional level;
(e) Change in literacy and enrollment levels; and
(f) Participation levels of women in political process.
Components of Women Empowerment: Four components of women’s empowerment are identified:
(i) Acquiring knowledge and an understanding of gender/power relations and ways in which these relations may be changed;
(ii) Developing a sense of self-worth, a belief in one’s ability to secure desired changes and the right to control one’s life;
(iii) Gaining the ability to generate choices and thereby acquiring leverage and bargaining power; and
(iv) Developing the ability to generate, organise or influence the direction of social change to create more just social and economic orders nationally and internationally.9
OBJECTIVES OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT
• To identify gaps in the empowerment of women, development of children and adolescents;
• Create a national network of pubic, private and NGO centres for delivering reproductive and child health services free to any client;
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• To create an enabling environment through convergence with other
• To open more child care centres for working women and expand the availability of safe abortion care;
• To use energy saving devices to reduce drudgery of women;
• To identify the ways in which the effects of policies and programmatic interventions to promote women’s empowerment have been measured;
• To improve access to sanitation, drinking water, fuel, wood and fodder for women;
• To develop health management and health package at all levels;
• To improve accessibility and quality of maternal and child health care services;
• To identify the evidence on how women’s empowerment affects important development outcomes such as health, education, fertility behaviour, income levels, etc.
• Supporting community activities package for women;
• To improve and increase clinical and contraception delivery services;10
• To organise educational and empowerment programmes for girls and women;
• To train resource persons, animators and trainers for activities visualised;
• To conduct and promote experimentations and innovations and research in the problems and programmes of empowerment of rural women;
• To increase awareness in women, for their development to use their talent optimally not only for themselves, but also for the society as a whole;
• To develop the skills for self-decision- taking capabilities in women and to allow them to present their point of view effectively in society;
• To create awareness among women to be truly ambitious and to dream for betterment;
10Meenu Agarwal, “Are Women in India Empowered Enough?” Women Empowerment and Globalization—A Modern Perspective, Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, New Delhi, p.241, 2009.
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• To make efforts in organising the women for fighting against the problems and difficulties related to them; and
• To integrate socio-economic activities with concern for health and environment protection in the light of the rural women culture.11
Women Empowerment in India
The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. Within the framework of a democratic polity, our laws, development policies, Plans and Programmes have aimed at women’s advancement in different spheres. From the Fifth Five Year Plan (1974- 78) onwards there has been a marked shift in the approach to women’s issues from welfare to development and then from Eighth Five Year Plan emphasis was shifted from development to empowerment. In recent years, the empowerment of women has been recognised as the central issue in determining the status of women. India has also ratified various International conventions and human rights instruments committing to secure equal rights of women. Key among them is the ratification of the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 1993. The National Commission for Women was set up by an Act of Parliament in 1990 to safeguard the rights and legal entitlements of women.
The Cairo conference in 1994 organised by UN on Population and Development called attention to women’s empowerment as a central focus and UNDP developed the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) which focuses on the three variables that reflect women’s participation in society— political power or decision-making, education and health. 1995 UNDP report was devoted to women’s empowerment and it declared that if human development is not engendered it is endangered. The Government of India declared 2001 as the Year of Women’s Empowerment (Swashakti). The National Policy for the Empowerment of Women was passed in 2001.
Women Empowerment Policy 2001
Goal and Objectives
1. The goal of this Policy is to bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of women. The Policy will be
11Meenu Agarwal, Bhawana and Anita Rai, “Women Empowerment: Socio-Economic Changes”, Women Empowerment and Globalization—A Modern Perspective, Kanishka Publishers, Distributors, New Delhi, p. 273, 2009.
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widely disseminated so as to encourage active participation of all stakeholders for achieving its goals. Specifically, the objectives of this Policy include:
(i) Creating an environment through positive economic and social policies for full development of women to enable them to realise their full potential.
(ii) The de jure and de facto enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedom by women on equal basis with men in all spheres—political, economic, social, cultural and civil.
(iii) Equal access to participation and decision making of women in social, political and economic life of the nation.
(iv) Equal access to women to health care, quality education at all levels, career and vocational guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security and public office, etc.
(v) Strengthening legal systems aimed at elimination of all forms of discrimination against women.
(vi) Changing societal attitudes and community practices by active participation and involvement of both men and women.
(vii) Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development process.
(viii) Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and the girl child; and
(ix) Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society, particularly women’s organisations.
Initiatives taken for Empowerment of Vulnerable and Marginalised Groups and Women in Difficult Circumstances
• Schemes of National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation
• Integrated Child Development Scheme
• National Rural Health Mission
• Janani Suraksha Yojana
• Integrated Child Protection Scheme
• Swadhar—A scheme for Women in Difficult Circumstances
• Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS)
• Antyodaya Anna Yojna (AAY)
• Ujjawala—A Scheme for Prevention of Trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Reintegration
• Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana(RSBY)
• Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
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• Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY)—A Conditional Maternity Benefit Scheme
• Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls (RGSEAG)—Sabla
• Swayam Siddha
• Scheme for Working Women Hostel
• STEP (Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women)
• Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana
• Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY)
• Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)
Gender Budgeting in India
As the nodal Ministry for women, the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) has been undertaking several initiatives for the empowerment of women. In this context, Gender Budgeting (GB) has been adopted by the Government as a tool for ensuring that adequate budgetary commitments are made for women. To build capacities of functionaries and stakeholders at all levels, a Gender Budget Scheme was launched in the XI Plan. As part of this Scheme, the Ministry sponsored training programmes and workshops at the Centre and in the States, developed training material, undertook direct interactive sessions with identified Ministries and provided technical support on GB in training courses organised by other organisations. Checklists for implementing Gender Budgeting by the various Ministries have been laid down and this Ministry is continuously taking up with the other Ministries as well as the state governments to carry forward this exercise. The Scheme also had a component for setting up a Gender Budgeting Cell (GBC ) in the MWCD. In view of the growing GB awareness in both the Central Ministries as well as state governments, the demand for capacity building and technical support has been rising. Further, while detailed training manuals have been prepared for the use of the trainers for Central Ministries, the same need to be developed for state governments. Gender Audit is another emerging area which needs to be focused. To start with, appropriate training modules /manuals are required to be developed and capacities built in gender auditing. The GBC of the Ministry needs to be set up fully to provide support to the growing GB activities.
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The National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW)
The National Mission for Empowerment of Women (NMEW) was launched by the Government of India (GoI) on International Women’s Day in 2010 with the aim to strengthen overall processes that promote all-round development of women. It has the mandate to strengthen the inter-sector convergence; facilitate the process of coordinating all the women’s welfare and socio-economic development programmes across ministries and departments. The Mission aims to provide a single window service for all programmes run by the Government for women under aegis of various Central Ministries. In light with its mandate, the Mission has been named Mission Poorna Shakti, implying a vision for holistic empowerment of women. The National Resource Centre for Women has been set up which functions as a national convergence centre for all schemes and programmes for women. It acts as a central repository of knowledge, information, research and data on all gender related issues and is the main body servicing the National and State Mission Authority.
To strengthen the processes which promote holistic development and empowerment of women, gender equality and gender justice through inter- sectoral convergence of programmes that impact women, forge synergy among various stakeholders and create an enabling environment conducive to social change.
• Inter-sectoral convergence of schemes for women; monitoring and review of progress;
• Strengthening institutional framework for greater efficiency in support to women;
• Focused research, review of schemes, programmes and legislations, and gender audits for evidence based policy-making;
• Investment in skill and entrepreneurship development, micro- credit, vocational training and SHG development for economic empowerment of women; and
• Support to Panchayati Raj Institutions; women’s movements and community representatives for strengthening of local bodies;
• 360 degree approach on media and communication for behaviour change and social mobilisation for gender equality.12
12 Official website of Ministry of Women & Child Development.
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High Level Committee on the Status of Women
The Ministry of Women and Child Development, Government of India on February 27, 2012 approved the setting up of a High Level Committee on the status of women to undertake another comprehensive study to understand the status of women as well as to evolve appropriate policy interventions based on a contemporary assessment of women’s needs. Although institutional mechanism for women empowerment is quite prominent in India yet situation of state of empowerment in India can be taken from analysis of following trends:
In order to analyse the state of women in a country various methods were designed from time-to-time. The introduction in 1995 of the Gender- related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) coincided with growing international recognition of the importance of monitoring progress in the elimination of gender gaps in all aspects of life. While the GDI and the GEM have contributed immensely to the gender debate, they have conceptual and methodological limitations. Therefore the Gender Inequality Index was introduced as an experimental index in 2010 as part of the 20th anniversary edition of the Human Development Report.13
State of Gender Inequality in India
The Gender Inequality Index (GII) is a new index for measurement of gender disparity that was introduced in the 2010 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). According to the UNDP, this index is a composite measure which captures the loss of achievement, within a country, due to gender inequality, and uses three dimensions to do so: reproductive health, empowerment, and labour market participation. The new index was introduced as an experimental measure to remedy the shortcomings of the previous indicators, the GDI and the GEM, both of which were introduced in the 1995 Human Development Report.14
As per the United Nations Development Programme’s Human Development Report 2013:India stood at 132nd position out of 187 countries on the gender inequality index—performing worse than Pakistan whose position is 123. All nations in South Asia, except Afghanistan, performed better than India, with Sri Lanka (75) topping them all. Nepal ranked 102nd and Bangladesh 111th. Key factors which put India on such a
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low position in 2013 are given below:
Skewed Sex Ratio: With only 914 females every 1000 males due to
Only 29 per cent of Indian women above the age of 15 in 2011 were a
part of the country’s labour force, compared to 80.7 per cent men. In Parliament, only 10.9 per cent of lawmakers are women, while in Pakistan 21.1 per cent are women.
Education and Health Status of Women in India
Only 26.6 per cent women above 25 years received a secondary education in 2010, compared to 50.4 per cent of men.
Maternal Mortality Ratio: In India, 200 women died every 100,000 child births.
Comparing with other Countries
U.S. : Secondary education to 94.7 per cent women which is a little higher than for men (94.3%).
China: 54.8 per cent of women received secondary education compared to 70.4 per cent for men.
Overall, India has made significant economic progress, improvements are slow on the human development front. On the human development index, India ranks 136th out of 187 countries. In India huge income disparities, gender inequality and the caste divide remain major issues.15
State of Gender Gap in India
The Global Gender Gap Index introduced by the World Economic Forum in 2006, is a framework for capturing the magnitude and scope of gender-based disparities and tracking their progress. The Index benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, political, education and health-based criteria, and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparisons across regions and income groups, and over time. The rankings are designed to create greater awareness among a global audience of the challenges posed by gender gaps and the opportunities created by reducing them. The methodology and quantitative analysis behind the rankings are intended to serve as a basis for designing effective measures for reducing gender gaps.
The Global Gender Gap Index tries to measure the ‘relative gaps between women and men across countries in four key areas—health, education, economics and politics. The rankings are based on four of sub- indices that measure economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival and political empowerment.
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The World Economic Forum has placed India in the 101st position among 136 countries in the 2013 edition of an annual report that makes a global assessment of the progress made in bridging the gender gap. But India has fared better in terms of the political empowerment of women. India’s gender gap index was 0.655 on a zero to one scale, with zero denoting inequality and one equality. India’s position has improved marginally in recent years; after hovering between positions 114 and 112 between 2007 and 2011 it has now shot to the 101st position. But its best position so far was in 2006 - when it stood 98th. It was ranked 105th in 2012.
It is in the political empowerment arena that India has scored strong, being ranked 9th. The political sub-index measures the gap between men and women at the apex of the political decision-making hierarchy in terms of the ratio of women to men in minister-level positions and in Parliament. The ratio of women to men in terms of years in executive office (Prime Minister or President) for the past 50 years is also taken into consideration. But in the other three, India has not been ranked particularly high—124 in terms of economic participation and equality, 120 for educational attainment and 135 for health and survival.16
Crime against Women in India
Incidence of crime against women in India also hampers women empowerment campaign in India. Table 1 shows head-wise incidents of crime against women during 2008 - 2012 and percentage variation in 2012 over 2011.
Political Participation of Women in India
At the grassroots level 50 per cent reservation given to women in local self-government institutions has improved political participation of women in India yet political participation of women in Legislative Assemblies and Parliament is still quite low in India. Women have adorned the position of President, Prime Minister, Speaker, and Leader of Opposition in politics of India and have proved their worth.
Women Representation in Indian Parliament
Table 2 presents the participation of women in the two Houses of Parliament.
Thus the percentage of women in decision-making positions always remained low. Women do not share the power of decision-making and are not involved in policy making in Indian democracy in proportion to their numerical strength. Thus there is a gap between the formal idea of women’s participation and their meaningful use of power.
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Year 2009 2010
Percentage Variation in 2012 over 2011
Rape (Section 376 IPC) Kidnapping and abduction
(Section 363 to 373 IPC)
Dowry death (Sec. 302 / 304 IPC)
Cruelty by husband and relatives (Section 498-A IPC)
Assault on women with intent
to outrage her modesty (Sec. 354 IPC) Insult to the modesty of women (Section 509 IPC)
Importation of girl from foreign
country (Section 366-B IPC)
Total IPC Crime against Women Commission of Sati Prevention Act, 1987 Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986
8 9 10
1 2,659 1,025
0 2,474 845
0 2,499 895
1 2,435 453
-100.0 5.3 -68.9
Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
Total SLL crime against Women Total (A+B)
SOURCE: National Crime Record Bureau Report.17
TABLE 1: HEAD-WISE INCIDENTS OF CRIME AGAINST WOMEN DURING 2008 - 2012 AND PERCENTAGE VARIATION IN 2012 OVER 2011
17http://www.google.co.in/search?tbm=isch85SOurce= univ86sa=X8sei=mSWeU5CYyyuATEoYHADQ&ved=OCDUQsAQ&biw= 1280&bih=699&q=crime%20against%20women%
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TABLE 2. YEAR WISE MEMBERSHIP OF WOMEN IN THE LOK SABHA AND RAJYA SABHA
Year Members in Lok Sabha
Members in Rajya Sabha
Total Female % Members
219 16 7.31
237 18 7.59
238 18 7.56
240 20 8.33 243 17 7.00
1952 499 1957 500 1962 503 1967 523 1971 521 1977 544 1980 544 1984 544 1989 517 1991 554 1996 543
2004 539 2009 543
22 4.41 27 5.40 34 6.76 31 5.93 22 4.22 19 3.49 28 5.15 44 8.09 27 5.22 39 7.17 39 7.18 43 7.92 49 9.0 44 8.2 58 10.6
244 24 9.84
245 24 9.80
223 19 8.52 245 15 6.12 245 19 7.8 245 28 11.4 245 22 8.98
SOURCE: Election Commission of India (www.eci.nic.in)
Women Representation in 16th Lok Sabha
The 16th Lok Sabha has 61 women members, the highest in history. speaker of 16th Lok Sabha is again a woman, Sumitra Mahajan. The present Rajya Sabha has 29 women members. The seven women ministers in the 46-member Council of Ministers have reinforced the new government’s agenda of women empowerment. Six of the 23 Cabinet ministers are women, claiming almost a 25 per cent share. Three of them — Smriti Irani (HRD), Nirmala Sitharaman (Commerce and Industry) and Harsimrat Kaur Badal (Food Processing) — are going to hold their maiden portfolios as ministers. The age profile of these ministers - the youngest Smriti Irani at 38 and the oldest minister of the Cabinet Najma Heptullah at 74 — adds to the spectrum. Sushma Swaraj has got the key position of External Affairs Minister and is also the first woman after three decades to be a member of the all powerful Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS). This may raise
245 29 11.8
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expectations of India’s female population to break the glass ceiling in many other bastions so far dominated by men.18
Thus road map for women empowerment is there but still we have miles to go on this path of empowerment. We hope that in coming years ahead women empowerment will prove its worth. Women are an integral part of a society. They play an important role in determining the destiny of a nation. It has been rightly said by Swami Vivekanand, “The Best thermometer to the progress of nation is its treatment of women”. Therefore, due recognition to them in the society and their greater involvement in socio-economic and political affairs becomes all the more important. Every person should come forward to ensure equal status for women in all spheres of life.
Woman is an incarnation of ‘Shakti’—the Goddess of Power. If she is bestowed with education, India’s strength will double. Let the campaign of ‘Kanya Kelavni’ be spread in every home; let the lamp of educating daughters be lit up in every heart
18The Tribune, May 29, 2014.