Local news of city Barddhamān India
COVID-19 pandemic impacted the consumer sectors of the gold market in H1 2020, with total demand dropping by 6% to 2,076t versus the same period in 2019, according to the World Gold Council's latest Gold Demand Trends report. ... The US dollar gold price gained 17% in H1, following a 10% increase during Q2.
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Economy after Covid-19
The world with a social biasness
BA(HONS)in Economics and politics,
Visva Bharati University.
For the time being, we can assume that there can be two circumstances that can affect the economy in two different ways.
● There is an antidote situation.
● There is no antidote Situation.
More or less it’s pretty hard to write any final conclusions at this moment, when too many things may be yet to happen. But the time is very much right to start any discussion on how we can see the world economy after this pandemic. There are possible consequences of the crisis, including technological shift and a change in the direction and the volumes of trade flow all around the world. I think the impact will be much worse if the situation will walk under no cure situation. However, we could call it as a socially bias economic outbreak. The year 2020 has been a disaster for both consumers and producers no matter what they produce or consume. In fact, in future, it could be more ferocious if the states do not act as a market mechanic. The future circumstances of the pandemic will leed many messages across the world about its positive effect on the environment. Despite the short period reduction in the environmental impact, over the upcoming years, we can expect huge attention for population and environmental issues. Maybe an increase in environmentally oriented costs to maintain or prevent future disasters causing a drop in the standard of living. Consumers will get more conscious about there consumption patterns. So that the world will face a step back from the basic needs as outlined in the Maslow pyramid(Maslow’s hierarchy theory). Income inequality will appear to be increasing in the future and There will be opportunities for countries to come in front with new policies, ideas, implications to build a resilient economy which is both attractive and diversified to global sectors. But meanwhile, for the global society, The economic drama yet to happen.
Border closure, pandemic related lockdowns had brought a disaster for the countries who are dependent on foreign tourist or traders. According to the IMF’s recently released 2020 External Sector Report, Costa Rica, Greece, Morocco, Portugal, and Thailand could be among the hardest hit with losses in tourism proceeds exceeding 3 per cent of GDP.
A country’s current account balance is a measure of its total transactions, which includes but is not limited to trade in goods and services with the rest of the world. For some economies, a drop in tourism (which is considered an export) could have an impact on overall current account balances. Much is still unknown about the pace of tourism recovery in 2020. Peoples’ desire and ability to travel abroad may continue to face headwinds going into 2021 due to the ongoing pandemic, leaving an uncertain outlook for tourism industries in economies both big and small.
This is an alarming crisis with several unfamiliar features that lead us a self-inflicted economic catastrophe as a necessary policy response to contain its spread. A global depression Is here and we all know only optimism won’t slow it down. I am not talking about laagers. In these modern days, the U.S. and most of the world have well built middle-class generation. We have social safety nets that didn’t exist a couple of decades ago. thankfully, that’s also true even for the most developing countries. Most governments today accept a deep economic interdependence among nations created by decades of trade and investment globalization. But those expecting a so-called V-shaped economic recovery, a scenario in which vaccine makers will conquer COVID-19 and everybody go straight back to the working life, or even a smooth and steady longer-term bounce-back like the one that followed the global financial crisis a decade ago, are going to be disappointed. Bangladesh exemplifies the triple blow that many emerging market countries have suffered from COVID19: domestic slowdown caused by the disease and the efforts to contain its spread; a sharp decline in exports, particularly in the ready-made garment sector, and a drop in remittances. Three factors separate a true economic depression from a mere recession. First, the impact is global. Second, it cuts deeper into livelihoods than any recession we’ve faced in our lifetimes And third, its bad effects will remain longer. The situation in the global economy hasn’t been the same for all the countries. A country with high interdependence between trade and self-production system with diversified sources may recover within a certain time. Although most of the developing countries are now following the capitalistic path for an exit point from this current situation. It affects all the country throughout the world including Russia, Japan, India, and almost every one of the western countries. The fault lines between globalisation and uneven development have become more apparent. The economic rivalry between the United States and China, which began a long before the pandemic, will only intensify, the centre of gravity of this rivalry will increasingly shift towards the development of new technology. This rivalry will no longer be limited to the two largest economies in the world. Any rivalry between China and its competitors will make it even more difficult for countries that are economically dependent on China or the U.S. to make their choices. It has actually revealed the vulnerability of the global value of supply chains, for the reason nations will have to prepare for the changing nature of the global economy. For the time being a set of questions are circulating around human existence. Where India and Russia have to make difficult choices regarding their future plans. How is India realising its dream of becoming a $5 trillion economy? Does Russia believe that its economy, based on natural resources, will continue to deliver the desired results at the global level? How realistic is the possibility of a fundamental shift in global economic processes as a result of a pandemic? And what does this mean for multilateral economic institutions?
A key cooking ingredient for poor & rich.
BA(HONS) in Economics and politics.
Visva Bharati University.
My study on onion price hike showed me an inaccurate estimate of supply and demand in Bangladesh onion market which created the Fluctuations. But, is it that easy to elaborate? Estimation of demand and production of onion wrong, the government agencies fail to understand the gravity of the problem had forced the price of this key cooking ingredient up to a record high and hurt consumers. Prices of onion hit highest of all time around Tk 250 - 300 a kg in the final days of last year. Now it seems that there is a problem in „estimates‟ or „perception‟ in the market. If the government statistics in my case study were correct, such a crisis would not have happened. So, either supply of production is over-estimated or demand is underestimated in this case.
The estimate – Government data
It says that the annual domestic demand for onions 24 lakh tonnes and 23.76 lakh tonnes were produced in fiscal 2018-19. and, 30 per cent of the produce gets wasted naturally. Based on the (GOVT) data, there was adequate stock But, this production estimate maintained by the ministry is 25% higher than the estimate of BBS the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, the national statistical agency. The BBS estimated that onion production was 18.03 lakh tonnes in the last fiscal year.
With that, If the annual onion import, which is nearly 10 lakh tonnes, is considered, then the discrepancy in estimate becomes very much clear. C A B said annual demand for onion would be around 30 lakh(TN).
Let’s think another way, Consumers are now getting more rational and health conscious so that they are eating more vegetable and less rice. To do so, Demand for onion is rising as people are consuming more and more vegetables by eating less rice. so the market demand is changing. That‟s why the government should revise the estimates of demand and supply of essential commodities.
“The government‟s estimate on the annual domestic demand for onion might be underestimated. The annual demand for the item might be 30-33 lakh tonnes.
It seems that they did not pay adequate attention deriving estimate of demand. They could not understand the gravity of the situation. There might be some sort of complacence among officials and they did not take the issue seriously,” Said Economist Zahid Hussain. Also fueled by the export ban slapped by India. On September 2019, India set the minimum export price to curb its shipments and help bring down soaring prices in the domestic market. Two weeks later, it announced a ban on exports with immediate effect, after extended Monsoon downpours delayed harvests and supplies shrivelled(Newspaper). Is it something new or unpredictable for Bangladesh? The answer is "no". India‟s move to restrict the export of essential commodities like an onion is not new. We had an experience regarding rice in 2008 when India restricted shipments. that caused price jumping in Bangladeshi market. And the lessons were? For faster recovery, we have to keep diversified sources open. Because when it is necessary there have to have a contingency planning in advance. So prediction in terms of balancing the market is very important. In my ongoing study of “Fluctuations in different essential commodities”, I found out that 50% of the market has been destroyed by the political business syndicates. How? Market monitoring does not mean policing. The government should assume the role of a facilitator so that adequate information flows in the market to help the market function properly. Develop a policy and maintain it. Also easing procedures for imports and exports to facilitate faster trade and measures to increase the yield of onions and developing storage facilities to reduce post-harvest loss. We have to develop our national capacity to produce our foods. We will not require imports if we could properly stock and increase yield.
What about the creation of an open database on demand and supply of essential commodities?
A hike in onion price affects the poor. I found no alternative but to monitor the onion market regularly. If Bangladeshi markets largely depended on Indian onion, the government should have followed the onion production trend in India a long time ago and taken steps accordingly. The government should forecast local cultivation and production in the coming seasons and discourage imports so that farmers do not incur losses in the event of ample supply of the perishable. But without collecting the data from the field, It can‟t be done. So, for the communication gap, Farmers hardly get into knowledge about market demand and price. This is where farmers get caught into some corrupted invisible hands.
CASE STORY – Khatunganj (Newspaper)
I have found a case at Khatunganj that describes as follows,“ Some Locals said rotten onion is being thrown away every day here. The onion had been stored by wholesalers who tried to cash in on the high demand for the common kitchen item in Bangladesh”. Onion traders believe that the crop was a little rotten when it entered Bangladesh and decomposed more after being stored in the warehouses. Lots of rotten onions were seen dumped into the canal in Firingi Bazar Bridge Ghat area. Some local youths were seen sorting out the better quality onion from there.
Some newspapers said they were selling the half-rotten onion at Tk 40-50 per kg during that period. There was some good initiative from the Government. For faster export, Taxation was taken off from the onion. This step perhaps cured the moment for a little bit. But, the power of that is something invisible and corrupted played the market. Maybe there is enough stock of onion but they are not being released to the markets. Syndicates of importers and various groups in different areas are causing an unusual hike in onion prices.
Economic conflicts over the South China sea
BA(HONS)in Economics and politics,
Visva Bharati University.
It’s important as tensions rise in the South China Sea, we need to understand how this complexity began and what international law says about freedom of navigation and competing for maritime claims in the waters. The view we have for the last couple of decades is not that much clear one, in fact, In 1982, the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea was adopted and signed, formalising extended maritime resource claims in international law. At this time, no fewer than six states had laid claim to the disputed Paracel and Spratly islands in the South China Sea. Since then, it has been a creeping militarisation of the waters by nations seeking to secure extended maritime resource zones. In 2009, Vietnam began reclaiming land around some of the 48 small islands it had occupied since the 1970s. On the other hand with a vital response, China began its much larger reclamations on submerged features it first began to occupy in the 1980s. By around 2016, these reclamations had resulted in three military-grade, mid-ocean airfields that sent shockwaves around the world, provoked in part by China breaking its own pledge not to militarise the islands. So what brings all these countries so much despair about this conflict? The answer is simple. The South China Sea is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean. It is bounded in the north by the shores of South China, in the west by the Indochinese Peninsula, in the east by the islands of Taiwan and northwestern Philippines (mainly Luzon, Mindoro and Palawan), and in the south by Borneo, eastern Sumatra and the Bangka Belitung Islands, encompassing an area of around 3,500,000 km2. It communicates with the East China Sea via the Taiwan Strait, the Philippine Sea via the Luzon Strait, the Sulu Sea via the straits around Palawan, the Indian Ocean via the Strait of Malacca, and the Java Sea via the Karimata and Bangka Strait. The Gulf of Tonkin and Gulf of Thailand are both parts of the South China Sea, and its shallow waters south of the Natuna Sea. The South China Sea is a region of tremendous economic and geostrategic importance. One-third of the world's maritime shipping passes through it, carrying over USD $3 trillion in trade each year. Huge oil and natural gas reserves are believed to lie beneath its seabed. It also contains lucrative fisheries, which are crucial for the food security of millions in Southeast Asia. The South China Sea Islands, collectively comprising several archipelago clusters of mostly small uninhabited islands, islets (cays and shoals), reefs/atolls and seamounts numbering in the hundreds, are subject to competing claims of sovereignty by several countries. These claims are also reflected in the variety of names used for the islands and the sea. Japan and South Korea rely heavily on the South China Sea for their supply of fuels and raw materials and as an export route, although the availability of diversionary sea lanes bypassing the South China Sea provides non-littoral states with some flexibility in this regard. So it’s clear that the economic gateway for many countries is lying under the seabed of the south china sea. So geographically the sea plays a vital eco-political role here. The South China Sea has been a longstanding source of tension and distrust in the region Competing for claims of territorial sovereignty over islands for more than a couple of decades. The UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea), which was formed in 1982 and came into force in 1994, established a framework intended to balance the economic and security interests of coastal states with those of seafaring nations. UNCLOS enshrines the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), a 200 nautical mile area that extends sole exploitation rights to coastal nations over marine resources. However, this exclusive zone was never intended to serve as a security zone, UNCLOS also guarantees wide-ranging passage rights for naval vessels and military aircraft.
In 2010 spring, “PRC reportedly communicated to United State officials that the South China Sea was "an area of non-negotiable 'core interest', with Taiwan and Tibet on the national agenda. However, Beijing appears to have backed away from that assertion in 2011”. Again after a year and a half around 2012 October the PRC's Global Times newspaper, published by the Communist Party People's Daily group, editorialised on South China Sea territorial disputes under the banner "Don't take peaceful approach for granted". The article referenced incidents earlier that year involving the Philippines and South Korea detaining PRC fishing boats in the region. "If these countries don't want to change their ways with China, they will need to prepare for the sounds of cannons. We need to be ready for that, as it may be the only way for the disputes in the sea to be resolved.
In the bigger context, a BBC journalist writes, “the Trump administration has pledged to overturn what it says is 40 years of policy failure concerning China. Washington has recently criticised Beijing on issues ranging from its handling of the coronavirus pandemic to human rights violations against Muslim minorities in Xinjiang and how it has dealt with pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong. But it was China's land reclamation projects in the South China Sea that prompted the rest of the world to reassess Beijing's international ambitions. And the stakes in the region are incredibly high. In these seemingly insignificant island chains and reefs, there are growing risks of military conflict between the world's two most powerful countries”.(Zhaoyin Feng, BBC Chinese)
Image re-ranking, as an effective way to improve the results of web-based image search, has been adopted by current commercial search engines such as Bing and Google. Given a query keyword, a pool of images is first retrieved based on textual information. By asking the user to select a query image from the pool, the remaining images are re-ranked based on their visual similarities with the query image. A major challenge is that the similarities of visual features do not well correlate with images’ semantic meanings which interpret users’ search intention. Recently people proposed to match images in a semantic space which used attributes or reference classes closely related to the semantic meanings of images as basis. However, learning a universal visual semantic space to characterize highly diverse images from the web is difficult and inefficient. In this paper, we propose a novel image re-ranking framework, which automatically offline learns different semantic spaces for different query keywords. The visual features of images are projected into their related semantic spaces to get semantic signatures. At the online stage, images are re-ranked by comparing their semantic signatures obtained from the semantic space specified by the query keyword. The proposed query-specific semantic signatures significantly improve both the accuracy and efficiency of image re-ranking. The original visual features of thousands of dimensions can be projected to the semantic signatures as short as 25 dimensions. Experimental results show that 25-40 percent relative improvement has been achieved on re-ranking precisions compared with the state-of-the-art methods.
WEB-SCALE image search engines mostly use keywords as queries and rely on surrounding text to search images. They suffer from the ambiguity of query keywords, because it is hard for users to accurately describe the visual content of target images only using keywords. For example, using “apple” as a query keyword, the retrieved images belong to different categories (also called concepts in this paper), such as “red apple,” “apple logo,” and “apple laptop.”
This is the most common form of text search on the Web. Most search engines do their text query and retrieval using keywords. The keywords based searches they usually provide results from blogs or other discussion boards. The user cannot have a satisfaction with these results due to lack of trusts on blogs etc. low precision and high recall rate. In early search engine that offered disambiguation to search terms. User intention identification plays an important role in the intelligent semantic search engine.
Indian Singer, Writer, Poet, Actor & Composer.
Born : 20/04/1983, Kolkata.
Education : Jogesh Chandra Chaudhuri College.
BOOKS WRITTEN : BAROOD, AGNISIKHA, LAL-CHOKH & RAJNITI.
Private Album : AMI KHUJE BERAI.
TV Show : SURER JHORNA DHARAI on SONAR BANGLA TV Channel.
Hey This Is Rahul U know now a days scamming is going on There is one guy who is running a fake call centre he offered me for the job and i went then i saw they are stealing money from USA guyz from there bank account his nsme is Md Kamran he stays beside Baguihati
A journey with my dog
In this forlorn world, no human vows to stay with us till the last breath. All have their own axe to grind. All remain busy with their drudgery of routine. But, some organisms are made for us ,whom we dub pet. Though we snatch their happy living by captivating them behind the bars but a couple of jaunty memories with them get encased in our life diary. In my life, I too have a four-leged companion who do not understand my language but me.
I came across a tiny beige-fured puppy with wagging tail and wiggling tounge, craving for some food. I catered him a plate full of rice. That compassion of mine inaugurated our enthralling friendship. He started coming before our abode every afternoon looking for some food. Gradually the stray dog shaped itself as the most precious gift in my heart. It grew old and currently, he's a quite grown up doggy. For my higher education, I shifted to towns and somehow our wonderful bondage dwindled. For the corona virus pandemic, we are settling in our ancestral home for a couple of months. And, our friendship enhanced in this period of time. In this write- up , I'll share one beautiful experience with him. So, one ,two,three ,and here we go.
Before our house, an alley stretches amid two ponds and ends up beside one dilapidated house. The house is surrounded by trees and a stagnant red water .The place is repleted with rustling leaves, buzzing crickets, birds with flapping wings. Along with me, in this small yet bewitching journey, Montu,my best friend, stalked.
In the way, lies an age old huge peepal tree which in our village gets worshipped annually. There lies a grave of one monk who died of a heart attack on that place. A bamboo forest adjoined with them. And the whole surrounding is pregnant with obscure bushes. I walk and leap sometimes. Montu with his barking, follow me. I talk to him about my life, dreams and days ahead. I'm pretty sure that he fail to understand what I'm saying but he can feel me and my feelings. This makes him my best friend.
After that comes a narrow rugged land with abstruse flora and on walking it,we reach an open place with heaps of tranquility. Open fields, trees in series, cows,goats, ponds, palm trees and what not! Everything I find there,and even the things that is not present over there.
We continue our journey and we reach the heaven like place. All you can do is gazing at the most wonderful scenerio. The definition of horizon will get acquainted with you and the meaning of country-side life too.
Environmental woes of India – a quality issue
Given the state of our environment it is evident that we are not meeting our stated environmental goals and objectives. At its core, the problem is an implementation issue and hence a quality issue. This article briefly examines 9 of the 14 points on quality management advocated By Edward Deming. Perhaps, by taking these points to heart, our environmental woes can be substantially improved.
1. Create a constancy of purpose focused on the improvements of products and services.
We can interpret this as meaning constancy of purpose focused on the improvement of the environment. This is a very important concept that policy makers often struggle with. As governments change hands so do economic , social and environmental policies. Constancy of purpose – protection and preservation of the environment – is lost. Hence, we need to ensure constancy of purpose across governments by ensuring autonomy and independence from government interference. Also they must have veto power over government projects, policies and decisions.
2. Adopt a new philosophy and recognize we are in a different era
Today the world faces an imminent crisis in the form of climate change. There are no ready solutions available on the horizon. It is time for nations to shoulder the burden of climate change together. Nations cannot adopt business as usual mentality. We need to adopt a new philosophy – clean energy, environmental preservation and protection, sustainable development etc. These ideas are here to stay and it is best we embrace it as quickly as possible.
3. Do not rely on mass inspection to control quality
This is based on the idea that prevention is better than cure. Rather than be reactive, we have to be proactive. We must invest in preventive measures and institute strict emission laws and regulations, invest in clean technology, provide incentives for businesses to switch to clean energy and renewables etc.
4. Do not award businesses to suppliers on the basis of price alone but also consider quality.
This applies to the choice of fossil fuel as the fuel to meet the energy needs of the nation. Largely it was an economic decision. Coal despite being the most pollutive of all the fossil fuels are favoured by nations because it is cheap – readily available and the conversion process is relatively inexpensive. ‘Cheap’ because its negative impact on the natural environment is not taken into consideration. However today coal is no longer the cheapest option in India. According to the The Economist India is the only country in the region where cost of producing solar power is almost 14% less than cost of electricity generated from coal. Based on the data compiled by global consultant Wood Mackenzie India’s levelised cost of electricity generation
· from fossil fuel stands at around $44.5 per MWh (Rs 3.05 per unit)
· from solar power generation stands at around $38.2 MWh (Rs 2.62 per unit)
· from onshore wind power generation stands at around $48.9 per MWh (Rs 3.36 per unit) 
In all the three instances, it is the cheapest provider in the region. It is a win win situation for India to move away from fossil fuels – particularly coal – and invest in renewables.
5. Focus on continuous improvement
Focus on continuous improvement in terms of attaining environmental goals. Constantly set new standards and hold the gains. This can only be assured when there is constancy of purpose and means to ensure constancy of purpose.
6. Practice modern training methods and invest in on the job training for all employees
Invest in new and emerging clean (modern) technologies like the High Efficiency Low Emission (HELE) technologies like the supercritical and ultra-supercritical combustion technologies . In fact clean technology like Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) provide a “very flexible method of electricity production – most combustible material can be burnt including coal, biomass and general waste. FBC systems improve the environmental impact of coal-based electricity, reducing SOx and NOx emissions by 90%.” That is a huge reduction. Currently the majority of the Indian coal plants are using subcritical (old) technology and count as some of the most pollutant plants in the world.
7. Improve leadership, practice modern supervision methods
The leadership must first educate itself on environment and energy matters. They must provide top priority to environment and energy concerns. The following are set of strategies recommended by the United Nations to promote renewable energy at a large scale (1) engage in awareness raising and access to information (2) develop academic curricula for renewable energy (3) remove policy and regulatory conflicts/gaps (4) pass renewable energy act (5) create regional grid and tackle imbalances through the grid. This will require collaboration and cooperation across nations. (6) focus on strategic development of a renewable energy industry and markets (7) develop product standards for biomass-derived fuels (8) map resources of renewable energy sources (9) tap into biomass energy potential . These should be the focus areas for the leaders .
8. Drive out fear
Energy self sufficiency is the overwhelming cry behind the push for coal energy in India. The solar industry in India is largely dependent on importation of Chinese solar panels and photovoltaic cells. Chinese firms supply about 80 per cent of solar cells and modules to India . But than this is true for many other nations as well. China is the world’s leading supplier of solar photovoltaic cells and panels, supplying 2/3 of the global supply. China accounts for 95% of rare earth production globally. The rare earth minerals are essential input in developing electronic and solar products. However, the rapidly rising domestic demand in China itself raises supply issues in the near future. For example, China already has solar capacity of 208GW, the highest in the world . India has 31GW solar capacity. China reached their 2020 solar target of 105GW in July 2017 - three years earlier where as India in all likelihood will miss its own stated target of 100GW of solar capacity by 2022 . Reverting back to the rare earth minerals, it is indeed highly likely that China will stringently control the production of these minerals in the years to come. Well as it turns out rare earth is not all that rare. Deposits exists outside of China, including in India . However, mining and processing poses considerable challenge with extensive negative environmental impact . But there is a silver lining here as well. Alternatives to rare earth materials are being researched and Lund University, Sweden, has come up with iron-based dyes to be used in solar cells in the future. ‘By using iron instead of other more expensive and rare metals, the production of solar cells and light catchers will become cheaper and more environmentally friendly.’ 
9. Eliminate targets, slogans, and numerical goals for the workforce
Zero Defect, Zero Effect has been the outcry of the Narendra Modi Government. The government has developed zed program with Quality Council of India to realize this goal. Under this flagship program incentives are provided to MSMEs to get ZED certified. ZED certification is based on the ZED Maturity Assessment Model. Training and education programs are provided to assist MSMEs in adopting the system . However, the government needs to push the program more. While majority of the stakeholders have heard the term Zero Defect, Zero Effect, few are aware of the ZED initiative behind the slogan. Detailed evaluation and audit concerning the effectiveness of the program should be carried out.
These than are a brief look at quality principles and how it can be applied to the management of the environment in India. Despite the government’s ‘stated commitment to environmental protection’, the ground reality is very different. According to data compiled by IQAir AirVisual's 2019 World Air Quality Report India accounts for twenty one of the world's 30 most polluted cities in the world with six cities in the top ten most polluted in the world. Greenhouse gas emissions, with the burning of fossil fuel a key driver of the climate crisis, is also a major cause of dirty air. India has just recently announced its goal to be energy self sufficient and increase its reliance on coal. Under the Make in India program, the government has ‘diluted environmental and labor laws’ to attract domestic and foreign investors. Social and ecological considerations have been placed on the back burner . With all these contradictory policies and goals and lack of clear environmental stewardship, sustainable development and green growth will remain a major challenge for India in the years to come.
 Sengupta, D. (2019, April 19). India is APAC’s cheapest power producer. The Economist. Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/energy/power/india-is-apacs-cheapest-power-producer/articleshow/70735458.cms?from=mdr
 Prakash, V., and Ghosh, S. (2017, Novemnber 2). Clean coal, not solar, is the silver bullet for India’s carbon emission reduction. hindustantimes. Retrieved from https://www.hindustantimes.com/analysis/clean-coal-not-solar-is-the-silver-bullet-for-india-s-carbon-emission-reduction/story-sFrmX8H7MbfpcRIGXTMP6H.html
 World Coal Association. (2020). High efficiency low emission coal. Retrieved from https://www.worldcoal.org/reducing-co2-emissions/high-efficiency-low-emission-coal
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 ETEnergyWorld. (2020). India imported solar power equipment worth $1,180 mn from China in Apr-Dec FY20. Retrieved from
 Bhambhani, A. (2020). 3.95 GW New Solar PV Capacity Installed In China During Q1/2020, Taking Cumulative Installed To 208 GW, Says National Energy Administration Taiyangnews. Retrieved from http://taiyangnews.info/markets/china-installed-3-95-gw-new-solar-in-q12020/
 Seetharaman, G. (2019). Why India may not achieve its 2022 clean energy target. The Economic Times. Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/energy/power/why-india-may-not-achieve-its-2022-clean-energy-target/articleshow/71869684.cms?from=mdr
 Hsu, J. (2019, May 31). Don’t Panic about Rare Earth Elements: The materials used in iPhones and Tesla cars need not become a long-term casualty of a U.S.- China trade war. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/dont-panic-about-rare-earth-elements/
 Homans, C. (2010, June 15). Are Rare Earth Elements Actually Rare? Not if you're willing to dig for them. Foreign policy. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/
 Lund University. (2020). WATCH: Solar cells of the future could be based on iron molecules. Retrieved from http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/article/watch-solar-cells-future-could-be-based-iron-molecules
 Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises. (2020). ZED. Retrieved from https://zed.org.in/
 Deutsche Welle (DW). (n.d.) 'Make in India' policy could increase air pollution woes. Retrieved from https://www.dw.com/en/make-in-india-policy-could-increase-air-pollution-woes/a-18366909